Abstract:
The structure of the title compound [systematic name: (3S,6S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-6-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)piperazine-2,5-dione dimethylformamide solvate], C20H19N3O3·C3H7NO, contains hydrogen-bonded tapes typical for diketopiperazines. The structure is stabilized by strong intermolecular interactions of the types O—H...O and N—H...O involving the dipeptide and the solvent molecules. The absolute configuration was known from the starting materials.

Abstract:
The specific role of Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in the brain is not yet clear, but it is an important enzyme in protein degradation as well as a metabolism regulator of glutamate as a neurotransmitter. The enzyme probably provides crucial protection for postsynaptic membranes against the neurotoxic effects of glutamate neurotransmitters. In men, GLDH activity declines almost evenly through the ages; in women, it declines faster in the first five decades. In the years of menopause, GLDH activity declines slower. The diminished GLDH activities in leukocytes and in the brain vary considerably, but they are parallel with the progress of neurodegenerative diseases. The GLDH activity is partly deficient in the brain, particularly in the leukocytes of patients with heterogeneous neurological disorders and degeneration of multiple neuronal systems. We found a statistically significant difference of GLDH activity in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurological diseases and unexpected in patients with degenerative and inflammatory disorders. The decrease in GLDH activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurodegenerative disorders may be one of the reasons for the neuro-excito-toxic glutamate effect. Defining the GLDH activity in leukocytes is at the moment the sole experimental method. The second one could be the measurement in cerebrospinal fluid. The results suggest a possibility to regulate glutamate level in human brain through activation of GLDH.

Abstract:
Let X_N= (X_1^(N), ..., X_p^(N)) be a family of N-by-N independent, normalized random matrices from the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble. We state sufficient conditions on matrices Y_N =(Y_1^(N), ..., Y_q^(N)), possibly random but independent of X_N, for which the operator norm of P(X_N, Y_N, Y_N^*) converges almost surely for all polynomials P. Limits are described by operator norms of objects from free probability theory. Taking advantage of the choice of the matrices Y_N and of the polynomials P we get for a large class of matrices the "no eigenvalues outside a neighborhood of the limiting spectrum" phenomena. We give examples of diagonal matrices Y_N for which the convergence holds. Convergence of the operator norm is shown to hold for block matrices, even with rectangular Gaussian blocks, a situation including non-white Wishart matrices and some matrices encountered in MIMO systems.

Abstract:
The model of heavy Wigner matrices generalizes the classical ensemble of Wigner matrices: the sub-diagonal entries are independent, identically distributed along to and out of the diagonal, and the moments its entries are of order 1/N, where N is the size of the matrices. Adjacency matrices of Erd\"os-Renyi sparse graphs and matrices with properly truncated heavy tailed entries are examples of heavy Wigner matrices. We consider a family X_N of independent heavy Wigner matrices and a family Y_N of arbitrary random matrices, independent of X_N, with a technical condition (e.g. the matrices of Y_N are deterministic and uniformly bounded in operator norm, or are deterministic diagonal). We characterize the possible limiting joint *-distributions of (X_N,Y_N) in the sense of free probability. We find that they depend on more than the *-distribution of Y_N. We use the notion of distributions of traffics and their free product to quantify the information needed on Y_N and to infer the limiting distribution of (X_N,Y_N). We give an explicit combinatorial formula for joint moments of heavy Wigner and independent random matrices. When the matrices of Y_N are diagonal, we give recursion formulas for these moments. We deduce a new characterization of the limiting eigenvalues distribution of a single heavy Wigner.

Abstract:
Traffics are defined as elements of Voiculescu's non commutative spaces (called non commutative random variables), for which we specify more structure. We define a new notion of free product in that context. It is weaker than Voiculescu's free product and encodes the independence of complex random variables. This free product models the limits of independent random matrices invariant by conjugation by permutation matrices. We generalize known theorems of asymptotic freeness (for Wigner, unitary Haar, uniform permutation and deterministic matrices) and present examples of random matrices that converges in non commutative law and are not asymptotically free in the sense of Voiculescu. Our approach provides some additional applications. Firstly, the convergence in distribution of traffics is related to two notions of convergence of graphs, namely the weak local convergence of Benjamini and Schramm and the convergence of graphons of Lovasz. These connections give descriptions of the limiting eigenvalue distributions of large graphs with uniformly bounded degree and random matrices with variance profile. Moreover, we prove a new central limit theorems for the normalized sum of non commutative random variables. It interpolates Voiculescu's and de Moivre-Laplace central limit theorems.

Abstract:
The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on September 30, 2005. The newspaper explained that this publication was a contribution to debate regarding criticism of Islam and self-censorship. In response, Danish Muslim organizations held public protests and spread knowledge of Jyllands-Postens publication. As the controversy grew, some or all of the cartoons were reprinted in newspapers in more than fifty other countries, which led to violent protests, particularly in the Muslim world. Critics of the cartoons describe them as islamophobic and argue that they are blasphemous, intended to humiliate a marginalized Danish minority, and a manifestation of ignorance about the history of western imperialism, from colonialism to the current conflicts in the Middle East. Supporters of the cartoons claim they illustrate an important issue in an age of Islamic extremist terrorism and that their publication is a legitimate exercise of the right of free speech. They also note that similar cartoons about other religions are frequently printed, arguing that the followers of Islam were not targeted in a discriminatory way. The dispute has again pointed out to the relevance of religion and religious differences in the contemporary world. Again, several questions presented themselves as significant: citizen freedom, values and the rights to exercise them, secularism, tolerance, multiculturalism majority-minority relationships and so on. The resolution to these issues appears as of the outmost importance, considering the existing tendencies of united Europe to even more firmly establish cultural, economic, and political associations, in order to launch a one, joined European identity with vanishing national, ethnic and religious differences. Therefore, the question becomes: what could serve as a foundation for such a united identity? The reactions to the idea of "united Europe" that provoked rising nationalism xenophobia, and resistance towards immigrants in general show that a construction of the identity of this kind represents a very complicated undertaking, with still blurred ending. This paper, thus, discusses basics misunderstandings between "Euro-enthusiastic" and the ones who worry about their own national identity, and points out to the existence of some intrashared values that could serve as a foundation for a future, united European identity.

Abstract:
This paper casts a light on some aspects of the complex process of social maturing among teenage girls in Belgrade. In order to do so, paper traces the girls’ attitudes toward school, boys, appearance, popularity as well as their future expectations. The paper discusses the ways in which girls today’s adapt to the role of adult young women.

Abstract:
Among other things, intensification of process of European integrations has imposed the need for realization and strengthening of common European cultural identity, that is for creating a new set of values, which would be common to all European citizens and which would be the basis for their permanent feeling of community and an experience of belonging to Europe as a common area. What are the chances of such a project since, on one hand, Islam is appearing in Europe as a religion that does not know secularity and, on the other hand, an important part of European inhabitants is showing the rise of anti-immigrant and , especially, anti-Islamic feelings, opposition to the presence of foreigners, fear of majorization and the loss of one's own identity and the values of European culture? The existing conflict with Islam is, most often, described as a conflict between secularized West where religion is a matter of private choice and religious (primarily Islamic) world where religion is regulating every aspect of life. However, innumerable examples all around us (starting with the fact that the time is counted according to the Christian calendar, Christian holidays and iconography, Biblical myths, moral codes, architecture, toponims-to mention only few) constantly reminds how much Christianity (primarily as a cultural tradition) is strongly present in the lives of the secular Europeans, how much is that secular context in fact permeated with Christian story. Vestiges of that past, which are all around us, are not in fact perceived as a Christian story - in meeting with European secularism such recognition comes only to "others" to whom that story is not familiar. On what premises then can such a common forum be created on which all would really feel equally at home? In this work I will try to consider possible directions in which, considering the existing circumstances, Europe could move in search of the new common denominator. Since nations, according to the nature and the sense of the idea itself of Europe without borders, can not figure as elements of cohesion (multiethnicity, turning towards market laws, obligatory decrease of sovereignty of national states towards, etc.), there are two logical possibilities: 1) Strengthening of Christian identity, that is returning to the previous paradigm, which is for Europe Christian paradigm - hence Christianity as new/old collective identity, 2) An attempt to de-fine a new type of plural secularism, that is, to establish secular society of non-Christian type that would be inclusive also for members of other, non-Chri

Abstract:
For the last fifteen years or so there has been an intensive discussion about the Irish "economic miracle". Since Irish economy has experienced a highest degree of sustained growth among the EU states in this very period this perception is an accurate one. The average GDP growth rate in this period has constantly been above five percent. The national income per capita rose dramatically to 27000 Euro and is the highest in the EU. The rate of employment is permanently on the increase while (qualified) workforce is becoming imported as well. In a very short period of time Ireland has achieved not only an impressive level of economic development but has also experienced a radical social transformation. From predominantly agrarian and traditionally emigrant country, Ireland has rapidly become a highly developed (post)industrial immigrant society. There is no doubt that the adequate strategy and the politics of rural development had an important role to play in achieving these enviable results. Regardless of how much this development is conditioned and influenced by the rural development policies of the EU, Irish model still has many authentic features. This paper explores the possibilities of using some of these experiences from the Irish developmental strategies in the context of an integral rural development of Serbia in the period of transition.

Abstract:
The (post)modern economy finds itself undoubtedly in the center of a large scale, radical contradictory, and uncertain current transformation of the world. Together with the (post)modern technologies it composes the dominant core of the globalizing processes, often referred to as globalization. The key features and especially the accumulated consequences of these processes pose a challenge for scientific and theoretical thought in the form of essential questions and dilemmas which are in the last instance tied to the impact of globalization on the quality and meaning of human life. This problem relates as much to individuals as it does to different social groups and human communities, that is to the entire humanity as such. This paper attempts to problematise these contradictory relationships between global corporative, economy as an instrumental value and the human liberty as a substantive i.e. the highest, value in itself (summum bonum), which gives meaning and dignity to human life. Therefore if economy in one form or another covers most of human practical activity then it is certain that it can have decisive impact on the most fundamental value of human life, that is the value of freedom (individual, general, internal and external). Of course the impact of economy can act either way - as an encouragement or, as it often happens, as a deterrent to expansion of the human freedom. This paper aims to briefly indicate some causes, characteristics and consequences of global economic processes which, in a way paradoxically, contribute more to narrowing than to opening spaces of human liberty, or simply generate proliferation of "hedonism of unfreedom". Is this another case of "surplus of knowledge" and "deficit of wisdom" that so strongly characterize our age, or something else?.