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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145570 matches for " Larissa B Thackray "
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MDA-5 Recognition of a Murine Norovirus
Stephen A. McCartney,Larissa B. Thackray,Leonid Gitlin,Susan Gilfillan,Herbert W. Virgin IV,Marco Colonna
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000108
Abstract: Noroviruses are important human pathogens responsible for most cases of viral epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) is one of several murine noroviruses isolated from research mouse facilities and has been used as a model of human norovirus infection. MNV-1 infection has been shown to require components of innate and adaptive immunity for clearance; however, the initial host protein that recognizes MNV-1 infection is unknown. Because noroviruses are RNA viruses, we investigated whether MDA5 and TLR3, cellular sensors that recognize dsRNA, are important for the host response to MNV-1. We demonstrate that MDA5?/? dendritic cells(DC) have a defect in cytokine response to MNV-1. In addition, MNV-1 replicates to higher levels in MDA5?/? DCs as well as in MDA5?/? mice in vivo. Interestingly, TLR3?/? DCs do not have a defect in vitro, but TLR3?/? mice have a slight increase in viral titers. This is the first demonstration of an innate immune sensor for norovirus and shows that MDA5 is required for the control of MNV-1 infection. Knowledge of the host response to MNV-1 may provide keys for prevention and treatment of the human disease.
Replication of Norovirus in Cell Culture Reveals a Tropism for Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
Christiane E. Wobus,Stephanie M. Karst,Larissa B. Thackray,Kyeong-Ok Chang,Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev,Ga?l Belliot,Anne Krug,Jason M. Mackenzie,Kim Y. Green,Herbert W. Virgin IV
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020432
Abstract: Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-αβ receptor and STAT-1, and was associated with extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes. An amino acid substitution in the capsid protein of serially passaged MNV-1 was associated with virulence attenuation in vivo. This is the first report of replication of a norovirus in cell culture. The capacity of MNV-1 to replicate in a STAT-1-regulated fashion and the unexpected tropism of a norovirus for cells of the hematopoietic lineage provide important insights into norovirus biology.
Replication of Norovirus in Cell Culture Reveals a Tropism for Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
Christiane E Wobus,Stephanie M Karst,Larissa B Thackray,Kyeong-Ok Chang,Stanislav V Sosnovtsev,Ga?l Belliot,Anne Krug,Jason M Mackenzie,Kim Y Green,Herbert W. Virgin IV
PLOS Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020432
Abstract: Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-αβ receptor and STAT-1, and was associated with extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes. An amino acid substitution in the capsid protein of serially passaged MNV-1 was associated with virulence attenuation in vivo. This is the first report of replication of a norovirus in cell culture. The capacity of MNV-1 to replicate in a STAT-1-regulated fashion and the unexpected tropism of a norovirus for cells of the hematopoietic lineage provide important insights into norovirus biology.
Singular-phase nanooptics: towards label-free single molecule detection
V. G. Kravets,F. Schedin,R. Jalil,L. Britnell,R. V. Gorbachev,D. Ansell,B. Thackray,K. S. Novoselov,A. K. Geim,A. V. Kabashin,A. N. Grigorenko
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3537
Abstract: Non-trivial topology of phase is crucial for many important physics phenomena such as, for example, the Aharonov-Bohm effect 1 and the Berry phase 2. Light phase allows one to create "twisted" photons 3, 4 , vortex knots 5, dislocations 6 which has led to an emerging field of singular optics relying on abrupt phase changes 7. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of singular visible-light nanooptics which exploits the benefits of both plasmonic field enhancement and non-trivial topology of light phase. We show that properly designed plasmonic nanomaterials exhibit topologically protected singular phase behaviour which can be employed to radically improve sensitivity of detectors based on plasmon resonances. By using reversible hydrogenation of graphene 8 and a streptavidin-biotin test 9, we demonstrate areal mass sensitivity at a level of femto-grams per mm2 and detection of individual biomolecules, respectively. Our proof-of-concept results offer a way towards simple and scalable single-molecular label-free biosensing technologies.
Nova espécie de Tichocoelidia Kramer do Norte do Brasil (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Neocoelidiinae)
Chiamolera, Larissa de B.;Cavichioli, Rodney R.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2003000400011
Abstract: the new species of tichocoelidia kramer, 1962, is described from ouro preto d'oeste, rond?nia state, brazil. the new species can be distinguished by the aspect of the male genitalia, mainly by the apex of aedeagus that is bifid and by the anal tube with a robust process at the base.
Notas sobre Coelidiana Oman (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Neocoelidiinae) e descri??o de três novas espécies do Brasil
Chiamolera, Larissa De B.;Cavichioli, Rodney R.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000200028
Abstract: three new species of coelidiana oman, 1936 are described and illustrated: coelidina bella sp.nov. (sinop, mato grosso); c. stricta sp.nov. (ariquemes, rond?nia) and c. diminuta sp.nov. (bebedouro, s?o paulo). coelidiana sinopensis (chiamolera & cavichioli, 2000) comb. nov. (formely in biza walker). new geographical distribution data are also recorded for coelidiana croceata osborn, 1923; c. brasiliensis linnavouri, 1965 and c. ferruginea chiamolera & cavichioli, 2000. a key to species is provided.
Interactions with Iridophores and the Tissue Environment Required for Patterning Melanophores and Xanthophores during Zebrafish Adult Pigment Stripe Formation
Larissa B. Patterson,David M. Parichy
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003561
Abstract: Skin pigment patterns of vertebrates are a classic system for understanding fundamental mechanisms of morphogenesis, differentiation, and pattern formation, and recent studies of zebrafish have started to elucidate the cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. In this species, horizontal dark stripes of melanophores alternate with light interstripes of yellow or orange xanthophores and iridescent iridophores. We showed previously that the highly conserved zinc finger protein Basonuclin-2 (Bnc2) is required in the environment in which pigment cells reside to promote the development and maintenance of all three classes of pigment cells; bnc2 mutants lack body stripes and interstripes. Previous studies also revealed that interactions between melanophores and xanthophores are necessary for organizing stripes and interstripes. Here we show that bnc2 promotes melanophore and xanthophore development by regulating expression of the growth factors Kit ligand a (Kitlga) and Colony stimulating factor-1 (Csf1), respectively. Yet, we found that rescue of melanophores and xanthophores was insufficient for the recovery of stripes in the bnc2 mutant. We therefore asked whether bnc2-dependent iridophores might contribute to stripe and interstripe patterning as well. We found that iridophores themselves express Csf1, and by ablating iridophores in wild-type and mutant backgrounds, we showed that iridophores contribute to organizing both melanophores and xanthophores during the development of stripes and interstripes. Our results reveal an important role for the cellular environment in promoting adult pigment pattern formation and identify new components of a pigment-cell autonomous pattern-generating system likely to have broad implications for understanding how pigment patterns develop and evolve.
Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life
Judith Good,Katherine Howland,Liz Thackray
Research in Learning Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v16i3.10895
Abstract: There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual) influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.
IRF-3, IRF-5, and IRF-7 Coordinately Regulate the Type I IFN Response in Myeloid Dendritic Cells Downstream of MAVS Signaling
Helen M. Lazear,Alissa Lancaster,Courtney Wilkins,Mehul S. Suthar,Albert Huang,Sarah C. Vick,Lisa Clepper,Larissa Thackray,Margaret M. Brassil,Herbert W. Virgin,Janko Nikolich-Zugich,Ashlee V. Moses,Michael Gale Jr.,Klaus Früh,Michael S. Diamond
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003118
Abstract: Although the transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are considered master regulators of type I interferon (IFN) induction and IFN stimulated gene (ISG) expression, Irf3?/?×Irf7?/? double knockout (DKO) myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) produce relatively normal levels of IFN-β after viral infection. We generated Irf3?/?×Irf5?/?×Irf7?/? triple knockout (TKO) mice to test whether IRF-5 was the source of the residual induction of IFN-β and ISGs in mDCs. In pathogenesis studies with two unrelated positive-sense RNA viruses (West Nile virus (WNV) and murine norovirus), TKO mice succumbed at rates greater than DKO mice and equal to or approaching those of mice lacking the type I IFN receptor (Ifnar?/?). In ex vivo studies, after WNV infection or exposure to Toll-like receptor agonists, TKO mDCs failed to produce IFN-β or express ISGs. In contrast, this response was sustained in TKO macrophages following WNV infection. To define IRF-regulated gene signatures, we performed microarray analysis on WNV-infected mDC from wild type (WT), DKO, TKO, or Ifnar?/? mice, as well as from mice lacking the RIG-I like receptor adaptor protein MAVS. Whereas the gene induction pattern in DKO mDC was similar to WT cells, remarkably, almost no ISG induction was detected in TKO or Mavs?/? mDC. The relative equivalence of TKO and Mavs?/? responses suggested that MAVS dominantly regulates ISG induction in mDC. Moreover, we showed that MAVS-dependent induction of ISGs can occur through an IRF-5-dependent yet IRF-3 and IRF-7-independent pathway. Our results establish IRF-3, -5, and -7 as the key transcription factors responsible for mediating the type I IFN and ISG response in mDC during WNV infection and suggest a novel signaling link between MAVS and IRF-5.
Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics
V. G. Kravets,R. Jalil,Y. -J. Kim,D. Ansell,D. E. Aznakayeva,B. Thackray,L. Britnell,B. D. Belle,F. Withers,I. P. Radko,Z. Han,S. I. Bozhevolnyi,K. S. Novoselov,A. K. Geim,A. N. Grigorenko
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/srep05517
Abstract: Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered (in addition to high losses) by the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. This may seem surprising given the number of metal compounds to choose from. Unfortunately, most of them either exhibit a strong damping of surface plasmons or easily oxidize and corrode. To this end, there has been continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are, unlike gold, the current metal of choice in plasmonics, compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonics characteristics surpassing those of gold films. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate a wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics.
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