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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403029 matches for " Langworthy Melissa M "
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Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function
Langworthy Melissa M,Appel Bruce
Neural Development , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8104-7-37
Abstract: Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1), which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.
Withdrawal rates as a consequence of disclosure of risk associated with manipulation of the cervical spine
Jennifer M Langworthy, Lianne Forrest
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-18-27
Abstract: Questionnaires were posted to 200 UK chiropractors randomly selected from the register of the General Chiropractic Council.A response rate of 46% (n = 92) was achieved. Thirty-three per cent (n = 30) respondents were female and the mean number of years in practice was 10. Eighty-eight per cent considered explanation of the risks associated with any recommended treatment important when obtaining informed consent. However, only 45% indicated they always discuss this with patients in need of cervical manipulation. When asked whether they believed discussing the possibility of a serious adverse reaction to cervical manipulation could increase patient anxiety to the extent there was a strong possibility the patient would refuse treatment, 46% said they believed this could happen. Nonetheless, 80% said they believed they had a moral/ethical obligation to disclose risk associated with cervical manipulation despite these concerns. The estimated number of withdrawals throughout respondents' time in practice was estimated at 1 patient withdrawal for every 2 years in practice.The withdrawal rate from cervical manipulation as a direct consequence of the disclosure of associated serious risks appears unfounded. However, notwithstanding legal obligations, reluctance to disclose risk due to fear of increasing patient anxiety still remains, despite acknowledgement of moral and ethical responsibility.Autonomy is a concept that has received increased emphasis in health care in recent years [1]. Personal autonomy can be defined as self-determination that is not affected by either the controlling interference of others, or limitations, such as impeded comprehension [2]. To respect their autonomy, the clinician must acknowledge the patient's right to make decisions based on their individual views, values and beliefs and realise that a patient cannot make an autonomous decision unless they are well informed [2,3]. Nevertheless, it would appear that there is little agreement as to the par
Psychosocial factors and their predictive value in chiropractic patients with low back pain: a prospective inception cohort study
Jennifer M Langworthy, Alan C Breen
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-15-5
Abstract: A prospective inception cohort study of patients presenting to a UK chiropractic practice for new episodes of non-specific low back pain (LBP) was conducted. Baseline questionnaires asked about age, gender, occupation, work status, duration of current episode, chronicity, aggravating features and bothersomeness using Deyo's 'Core Set'. Psychological factors (fear-avoidance beliefs, inevitability, anxiety/distress and coping, and co-morbidity were also assessed at baseline. Satisfaction with care, number of attendances and pain impact were determined at 6 weeks. Predictors of poor outcome were sought by the calculation of relative risk ratios.Most patients presented within 4 weeks of onset. Of 158 eligible and willing patients, 130 completed both baseline and 6-week follow-up questionnaires. Greatest improvements at 6 weeks were in interference with normal work (ES 1.12) and LBP bothersomeness (ES 1.37). Although most patients began with moderate-high back pain bothersomeness scores, few had high psychometric ones. Co-morbidity was a risk for high-moderate interference with normal work at 6 weeks (RR 2.37; 95% C.I. 1.15–4.74). An episode duration of >4 weeks was associated with moderate to high bothersomeness at 6 weeks (RR 2.07; 95% C.I. 1.19 – 3.38) and negative outlook (inevitability) with moderate to high interference with normal work (RR 2.56; 95% C.I. 1.08 – 5.08).Patients attending a private UK chiropractic clinic for new episodes of non-specific LBP exhibited few psychosocial predictors of poor outcome, unlike other patient populations that have been studied. Despite considerable bothersomeness at baseline, scores were low at follow-up. In this independent health sector back pain population, general health and duration of episode before consulting appeared more important to outcome than psychosocial factors.Recovery from persistent low back pain is determined not solely by clinical factors but also by the individual's psychological state [1]. Such psychologic
A survey of accessibility and utilisation of chiropractic services for wheelchair-users in the United Kingdom: What are the issues?
Naomi D McKay, Jennifer Langworthy
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2045-709x-19-20
Abstract: A 20 item questionnaire was posted to 250 randomly selected chiropractors registered with the General Chiropractic Council. Follow-up questionnaires were sent 7 days after the initial return date. Quantitative data were subjected to frequency analysis.The response rate was 64% (n = 161). The majority (66%) of chiropractors had been in practice less than 10 years and were practice owners (50%). Fifty-two percent of chiropractors sampled had treated a patient in a wheelchair in the previous 5 years. The majority (87%) had treated between 1 and 5 such patients. Patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke and cerebral palsy most commonly presented for treatment. The majority of patients' presenting complaint was musculoskeletal in origin, primarily for pain control. Only 13% of respondents worked in a fully accessible clinic. Impracticality of alterations was the most common reason for inaccessibility.Wheelchair-users seem to be an underserved patient group in relation to chiropractic services. Chiropractic management is primarily utilised for pain control in patients with physical disabilities in which mobility may be improved or maintained. Co-management of wheelchair-users with GPs appears to be desirable in order to achieve optimal patient care however more research is required regarding the efficacy of chiropractic treatment for a range of disabling conditions. Physical access was identified as a key barrier to accessing care.The aim of all healthcare practitioners is to provide patients with the best possible service. However, in 2008, 32% of the 10.2 million people covered by the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) experienced problems in the previous 12 months accessing pubic services, including healthcare [1,2]. There is a shortage of literature documenting the experiences of patients with physical disabilities when accessing healthcare however disabled patients have reported problems getting appointments at short notice and also at a time they have access to tran
Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization
Melissa M. Gomes
Nursing Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/473980
Abstract: Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses. 1. Introduction Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is recognized as a violent act and is no longer considered a normal part of growing up. Research has indicated the experience of peer (girl-girl) relational aggression—whether from the standpoint of the perpetrator or the victim—as detrimental, resulting in serious consequences for those involved [1–4], indicating that it reverberates in a manner similar to physical aggression. Although relational aggression victimization is experienced by both boys and girls [5], it is a psychosocial experience that damages what matters most to girls, which is a connection to the peer group [6]. As an aspect of the bullying phenomena, it seeks to damage peer relationships through rejection, isolation, and character assassination. However, relational aggression is covert and often goes unnoticed to those not immersed within the social network. For girls, this is crucially important because it impacts social connections that are a vital aspect of growth and development, and self-identity formation [7]. Moreover, the maladaptive responses of depression, social anxiety, social phobia, borderline personality disorder, psychosocial maladjustment and decreased life satisfaction have all been associated with the relational aggression victimization experience [2, 8, 9]. Furthermore, an increase from previous years in the rates of suicide attempts in seemingly healthy African American female adolescents (Joe, Baser,
Pre-fractionated Microbial Samples – The Second Generation Natural Products Library at Wyeth
Melissa M. Wagenaar
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13061406
Abstract: From the beginning of the antibiotic era in the 1940s to the present, Wyeth has sustained an active research program in the area of natural products discovery. This program has continually evolved through the years in order to best align with the “current” drug discovery paradigm in the pharmaceutical industry. The introduction of highthroughput screening and the miniaturization of assays have created a need to optimize natural product samples to better suit these new technologies. Furthermore, natural product programs are faced with an ever shortening time period from hit detection to lead characterization. To address these issues, Wyeth has created a pre-fractionated natural products library using reversed-phase HPLC to complement their existing library of crude extracts. The details of the pre-fractionated library and a cost-benefit analysis will be presented in this review.
Morphological Knowledge and Decoding Skills of Deaf Readers  [PDF]
M. Diane Clark, Gizelle Gilbert, Melissa L. Anderson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.22018
Abstract: Many studies have reported the necessity of phonological awareness to become a skilled reader, citing barriers to phonological information as the cause for reading difficulties experienced by deaf individuals. In contrast, other research suggests that phonological awareness is not necessary for reading acquisition, citing the importance of higher levels of syntactic and semantic knowledge. To determine if deaf students with higher language skills have better word decoding strategies, students responded to a morphological test, where monomorphemic words and multimorphemic words were matched to their definitions. Two studies are reported, one focusing on English placement levels and a second with formal measures of both ASL and English language proficiency. Results in-dicated that performance on the morphological decoding test was related to language proficiency scores, but not to phonological awareness scores.
Visual Attributes of Subliminal Priming Images Impact Conscious Perception of Facial Expressions  [PDF]
Melissa A. Huang, Hsin-Mei Sun, Lucia M. Vaina
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.93009
Abstract: We investigated, in young healthy participants, how the affective content of subliminally presented priming images and their specific visual attributes impacted conscious perception of facial expressions. The priming images were broadly categorized as aggressive, pleasant, or neutral and further subcategorized by the presence of a face and by the centricity (egocentric or allocentric vantage-point) of the image content. Participants responded to the emotion portrayed in a pixelated target-face by indicating via key-press if the expression was angry or neutral. Response time to the neutral target face was significantly slower when preceded by face primes, compared to non-face primes (p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). In contrast, faster RTs were observed when angry target faces were preceded by face compared to non-face primes. In addition, participants’ performance was worse when a priming image contained an egocentric face compared to when it contained either an allocentric face or an egocentric non-face. The results suggest a significant impact of the visual features of the priming image on conscious perception of face expression.
Transforming Energy Usage: It’s Not Only about Solar  [PDF]
Melissa Matlock
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.32004

GRID Alternatives, a non-profit solar contractor, installs solar electric systems for low-income families. Part of GRID Alternatives’ program is to provide solar electric systems that are designed to replace 75% of the homeowners’ electricity usage with solar power. This leaves 25% of their bill still to be paid. In order to save our resources, one must first use conservation practices, then energy efficiency, and then follow-up with renewable energy to cover the rest. GRID Alternatives Inland Empire (GRID IE) educates our participating homeowners and community members on this philosophy. However, measuring whether or not our families have been following this philosophy is hard to prove. It may seem obvious that if we want to know whether our homeowners are saving energy, we should look at their energy usage before and after solar. However, this is not the case with our low-income families that could be using electricity to make their lives more comfortable. GRID IE developed a survey to be given before homeowners received their solar systems and started their participation with GRID Alternatives and the same survey to be given after they have received their solar systems. This before and after survey (pre-test/post-test) asked our homeowners to rate their responses to 7 questions on a scale of 1 - 10. The before and after responses for each person were compared, and as a group, their differences were calculated to find out if the differences were statistically significance (within subjects, dependent Z test). 6 out of 7 questions showed statistical significance. The big picture is that change is happening among our low-income homeowners and has happened for many of the varied energy saving methods discussed. It is important to transform energy usage, because the solution is not just solved with solar.

Latinas’ Experience of Sexual Assault Disclosure  [PDF]
Melissa Villarreal
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510140

This study describes Latina’s experience of sexual assault disclosure. This study contributes Latinas’ voices to the literature on sexual assault disclosure, about feelings experienced during the initial disclosure—regret, shame, and negative judgment of self, and about consequences experienced from the disclosure—feeling spoiled for marriage, silenced, and disbelieved. It points to the need for further research on social interventions to empower Latina sexual assault survivors. Although the literature review identified some research in the area of sexual assault with Latinas, there has been a limited amount of research conducted on feelings and consequences experienced specifically by Latinas during a sexual assault disclosure.

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