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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7846 matches for " Lan Pham Thi "
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BTEX pollution caused by motorcycles in the megacity of HoChiMinh
Tran Thi Ngoc Lan,Pham Anh Minh,
Tran Thi Ngoc Lan
,Pham Anh Minh

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2013,
Abstract: Monitoring of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTEX) was conducted along with traffic counts at 17 roadside sites in urban areas of HoChiMinh. Toluene was the most abundant substance, followed by p,m-xylenes, benzene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene. The maximum observed hour-average benzene concentration was 254 μg/m3. Motorcycles contributed to 91% of the traffic fleet. High correlations among BTEX species, between BTEX concentrations and the volume of on-road motorcycles, and between inter-species ratios in air and in gasoline indicate the motorcycle-exhaust origin of BTEX species. Daily concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylenes and o-xylene were 56, 121, 21, 64 and 23 μg/m3, respectively. p,m-xylenes possess the highest ozone formation potential among the BTEX family.
Solutions to systems of partial differential equations with weighted self-reference and heredity
Pham Ky Anh,Nguyen Thi Thanh Lan,Nguyen Minh Tuan
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2012,
Abstract: This article studies the existence of solutions to systems of nonlinear integro-differential self-referred and heredity equations. We show the existence of a global solution and the uniqueness of a local solution to a system of integro-differential equations with given initial conditions.
Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Vietnam, 2011
Olsen Birgitta,Lan Pham Thi,Golparian Daniel,Johansson Emma
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-40
Abstract: Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. In Vietnam, knowledge regarding N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and AMR is limited, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae is totally lacking. Herein, we investigated the phenotypic AMR (previous, current and possible future treatment options), genetic resistance determinants for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolated in 2011 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam isolated in 2011 (n = 108) were examined using antibiograms (Etest for 10 antimicrobials), Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequencing of ESC resistance determinants (penA, mtrR and penB). Results The levels of in vitro resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 98%, tetracycline 82%, penicillin G 48%, azithromycin 11%, ceftriaxone 5%, cefixime 1%, and spectinomycin 0%. The MICs of gentamicin (0.023-6 mg/L), ertapenem (0.002-0.125 mg/L) and solithromycin (<0.016-0.25 mg/L) were relatively low. No penA mosaic alleles were found, however, 78% of the isolates contained an alteration of amino acid A501 (A501V (44%) and A501T (34%)) in the encoded penicillin-binding protein 2. A single nucleotide (A) deletion in the inverted repeat of the promoter region of the mtrR gene and amino acid alterations in MtrR was observed in 91% and 94% of the isolates, respectively. penB resistance determinants were detected in 87% of the isolates. Seventy-five different NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 59 STs have not been previously described. Conclusions In Vietnam, the highly diversified gonococcal population displayed high in vitro resistance to antimicrobials previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment (with exception of spectinomycin), but resistance also to the currently recommended ESCs were found. Nevertheless, the MICs of three potential future treatment options were low. It is essential to strengthen the diagnostics, case reporting, and epidemiologic surveillance of gonorrhoea in Vietnam. Furthermore, the surveillance of gonococcal AMR and gonorrhoea treatment failures is imperative to reinforce. Research regarding novel antimicrobial treatment strategies (e.g., combination therapy) and new antimicrobials is crucial for future treatment of gonorrhoea.
Straightforward Procedure for Laboratory Production of DNA Ladder
Vo Thi Thuong Lan,Pham Thi Thanh Loan,Pham Anh Thuy Duong,Le Thi Thanh,Ngo Thi Ha,Ta Bich Thuan
Journal of Nucleic Acids , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/254630
Abstract: DNA ladder is commonly used to determine the size of DNA fragments by electrophoresis in routine molecular biology laboratories. In this study, we report a new procedure to prepare a DNA ladder that consists of 10 fragments from 100 to 1000?bp. This protocol is a combination of routinely employed methods: cloning, PCR, and partial digestion with restriction enzymes. DNA fragments of 100?bp with unique restriction site at both ends were self-ligated to create a tandem repeat. Once being cloned, the tandem repeat was rapidly amplified by PCR and partially digested by restriction enzymes to produce a ladder containing multimers of the repeated DNA fragments. Our procedure for production of DNA ladder could be simple, time saving, and inexpensive in comparison with current ones widely used in most laboratories. 1. Introduction A DNA ladder is a solution of DNA molecules of different lengths used in agarose or acrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is applied as a reference to estimate the size of unknown DNA molecules that were separated based on their mobility in an electrical field through the gel. Thus, DNA ladders are essential molecules routinely used in every DNA dealing laboratory. Digestion with restriction enzymes of known-length DNA fragments from natural sources such as lambda [1], simian virus 40 [2], and plasmid [3] creates the ladder fragments the lengths of which are dependent on restriction enzyme sites thus, not fully controlled. To overcome this disadvantage and to make DNA ladders more flexible, DNA engineering was developed [4]. Perhaps, for commercial purpose, DNA manipulation for producing DNA ladder fragments became confidential. Typically, a DNA fragment that contains a tandem repeat units separated by the same unique restriction enzyme sites was cloned into a plasmid and then partially digested to produce a ladder with multimers of the repeats [5, 6]. However, the more clear visibility of small size fragments requires the higher amount of plasmid used in cleavage reaction. Recently, many laboratory protocols describing the preparation of DNA ladders by employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method have been reported [7–9]. This method involves either the simultaneous amplification of a DNA target using primer sets [8] or the separate amplification of a different DNA targets using specific primers [9, 10]. However, using simultaneous primer sets is often difficult to be reproductive because of problematic optimization of PCR conditions, while using separate primer set for a particular fragment of ladders causes a laborious task.
Nouvelle fran aise contemporaine et théories du genre
Pham Thi That
Synergies Pays Riverains du Mékong , 2010,
Abstract: La nouvelle fran aise contemporaine frappe par sa richesse et sa variété. Si bien qu’on se demande ce que c’est qu’une nouvelle. La diversité des notions théoriques formulées par des lexicographes, par des critiques et par des écrivains eux-mêmes montre qu’on ne peut définir avec rigueur ce genre littéraire :il existe toujours une certaine inadéquation entre la théorie et la pratique.
Chemical properties during different development stages of fruit orchards in the mekong delta (Vietnam)  [PDF]
Pham Van Quang, Vo Thi Guong
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23049
Abstract: This study to examine soil fertility status was conducted on 10 citrus plantations in Hau Giang province within the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Fruit trees are mostly grown on the raised beds to avoid annual flood with alluvial soil type. Soil sampling was done in the dry season of 2010 at two soil depths, for each raised bed. Development ages of raised beds were represented by two groups, young age group (≤ 30 years) and old age group (> 30 years). For chemical analysis, pH, organic matter, CEC, total nitrogen, NH4+, NO3– and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K were determined. The results showed that the pH (water) was strongly acid. The CEC was in average 19.2 cmol+.kg–1 in topsoil (0 - 20 cm depth) and 18.7 cmol+.kg–1 in subsoil (20 - 50 cm depth) for young age group. Similarly, the CEC was 16.7 cmol+.kg–1 in topsoil and 15.8 cmol+.kg–1 in subsoil for old age group. Organic matter on young age group (7.38 and 5.47% on average for topsoil and subsoil respectively) was significantly higher than that of old age group (5.20 and 3.81% on average for topsoil and subsoil respectively). Total nitrogen was not significantly different between the sites for the age groups of raised as well as the soil layers. Ammonium-N levels were excessive, and NO3--N levels were high. Potassium and Mg2+ were significantly different between age groups of raised beds and the same pattern between soil layers, while Ca2+ did not vary significantly. Potassium and Ca2+ levels were moderate, Mg2+ was high and P levels were very high. Soil fertility in the raised beds subjected to an adverse on plant growth and an imbalance in soil nutrients under low pH conditions. Loss of soil quality was exhibited in reduced organic matter with the aging of raised beds.
An Investigation of Perceptions of Vietnamese Teachers and Students toward Cooperative Learning (CL)
Pham Thi Hong Thanh
International Education Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v4n1p3
Abstract: The present study examined how cooperative learning (CL) is implemented in Vietnamese classrooms, how local teachers' and students' perceived this approach to learning, and what were the local barriers that hindered its implementation. Forty teachers and forty students from twenty Vietnamese colleges completed a questionnaire about CL and follow-up interviews were conducted with ten students and ten teachers on their perceptions of this practice. The results showed that CL has become a common and preferred method of instruction in Vietnam. However, the functions of CL were often not understood correctly because the teachers and students maintained that CL mainly helped the students remember information rather than develop a deep understanding of the text they were studying. Responses also revealed that CL was hindered by a number of local cultural and institutional barriers such as class size, curriculum coverage and workload division. Future research may need to identify strategies to correct mismatches between CL principles and local barriers so that this approach to learning becomes more adaptive to the local context.
The Roles of Teachers in Implementing Educational Innovation: The Case of Implementing Cooperative Learning in Vietnam
Pham Thi Hong Thanh
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v4n1p3
Abstract: Since the late 1990s there has been a top-down movement to reform teaching and learning approaches in Vietnam. An important component of this reform is to change the traditional teaching and learning approach into cooperative learning. However, cooperative learning has failed to make its impact on the current teaching and learning approach. This paper examines one of the most important constraints on the implementation of cooperative learning in Vietnam, namely, perceptions of Vietnamese teachers toward the roles and responsibilities of teachers in class. It argues that many principles of cooperative learning are in serious conflict with traditional perceptions of Vietnamese teachers regarding the nature of teaching and learning. Therefore, policymakers and educators need to take cautious steps when implementing such radical approaches in Vietnamese educational settings. If they want to obtain support from teachers, they cannot merely borrow the original version of the innovation. Rather, they need to take various modifications into consideration.
A Multi-Center Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Gatifloxacin versus Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Shigellosis in Vietnamese Children
Ha Vinh,Vo Thi Cuc Anh,Nguyen Duc Anh,James I. Campbell,Nguyen Van Minh Hoang,Tran Vu Thieu Nga,Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu,Pham Van Minh,Cao Thu Thuy,Pham Thanh Duy,Le Thi Phuong,Ha Thi Loan,Mai Thu Chinh,Nguyen Thi Thu Thao,Nguyen Thi Hong Tham,Bui Li Mong,Phan Van Be Bay,Jeremy N. Day,Christiane Dolecek,Nguyen Phu Huong Lan,To Song Diep,Jeremy J. Farrar,Nguyen Van Vinh Chau,Marcel Wolbers,Stephen Baker
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001264
Abstract: Background The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial with two parallel arms at two hospitals in southern Vietnam. The study was designed as a superiority trial and children with dysentery meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Participants received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day) in a single daily dose for 3 days or ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day) in two divided doses for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure; secondary outcome measures were time to the cessation of individual symptoms. Four hundred and ninety four patients were randomized to receive either gatifloxacin (n = 249) or ciprofloxacin (n = 245), of which 107 had a positive Shigella stool culture. We could not demonstrate superiority of gatifloxacin and observed similar clinical failure rate in both groups (gatifloxacin; 12.0% and ciprofloxacin; 11.0%, p = 0.72). The median (inter-quartile range) time from illness onset to cessation of all symptoms was 95 (66–126) hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 93 (68–120) hours for the ciprofloxacin recipients (Hazard Ratio [95%CI] = 0.98 [0.82–1.17], p = 0.83). Conclusions We conclude that in Vietnam, where nalidixic acid resistant Shigellae are highly prevalent, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin are similarly effective for the treatment of acute shigellosis. Trial Registration Controlled trials number ISRCTN55945881
Evaluation of Rice Husk Use Scenarios Incorporating Stakeholders’ Preferences Revealed through the Analytic Hierarchy Process in An Giang Province, Vietnam  [PDF]
Pham Thi Mai Thao, Kiyo H. Kurisu, Keisuke Hanaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.53010

To process biomass energy successfully, it is necessary to incorporate a number of criteria that can be assessed either quantitatively or qualitatively for various biomass scenarios. It is also important to take into account the local people’s preferences and interests in the decision-making process. In this study, preferences of various stakeholders on rice husk use, such as urban households, rural households, rice mill owners, brick kiln owners, government officials, and scientists, were investigated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The results were incorporated with objective evaluation that was derived from Life Cycle Assessment. A holistic evaluation of rice-husk use scenarios was conducted. The results showed that rural households, rice mill owners, and brick kiln owners still want to use rice husk in conventional ways, while urban households, government officials, and scientists prefer to use rice husk with new technologies. The results reveal the aspects that each stakeholder thinks important and the conflicts between stakeholders. These can help government officials grasp the preferences of the local people which is important information for decision-making.

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