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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 508 matches for " Lalit Nihal "
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Safety and Efficacy of Hepatitis B Vaccination in Cirrhosis of Liver
D. Ajith Roni,Rama Mohan Pathapati,A. Sathish Kumar,Lalit Nihal,K. Sridhar,Sujith Tumkur Rajashekar
Advances in Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/196704
Abstract: Introduction. Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) are more likely to have severe morbidity and fatality rate due to superimposed acute or chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection. The literature has shown that hepatitis B vaccines are safe and effective in patients with CLD, but the data in cirrhosis liver is lacking. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of HBV vaccine in patients with cirrhosis liver. Methods. CTP classes A and B CLD patients negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen were included. All patients received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine 20?mcg intramuscularly at 0, 30, and 60 days. Anti-HBs antibody was measured after 120 days. Results. 52 patients with mean age years were studied. Response rates in CTP classes A and B were 88% and 33.3%. We observed that the alcoholic chronic liver disease had less antibody response (44%) than other causes of chronic liver disease such as cryptogenic 69% and HCV 75%. Conclusions. Patients with cirrhosis liver will have low antibody hepatitis B titers compared to general population. As the age and liver disease progress, the response rate for hepatitis B vaccination will still remain to be weaker. 1. Introduction Globally, chronic HBV infection affects over 350 million people, and up to 40% of these cases may progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma [1]. Chronic liver disease [CLD] contributes to approximately 400000 hospitalizations and nearly 30,000 deaths annually worldwide [2, 3]. When compared with patients without liver disease, patients with CLD are more likely to have severe complications and also severe fatality rate due to superimposed acute or chronic HBV infection. Both acute and chronic coinfections with HBV can be prevented by HBV vaccination [4, 5]. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests an increased occurrence of fulminant liver failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with HBV, and HCV coinfection [6, 7]. HBV vaccination is safe and well tolerated and has high seroconversion rates in patients with mild to moderate CLD but has reduced efficacy in advanced liver disease and after liver transplantation [8–17]. To minimize the occurrence of HBV infection in CLD, a variety of organizations have recommended HBV vaccination for these patients [18, 19]. The immune response to HBV vaccines among patients with CLD varies from 70% to 90%. Hence in evaluating HBV vaccination in patients with cirrhosis liver, three questions need to be answered: (1) who needs vaccination? And (2) is the vaccination safe?
Ectopic (heterotopic) pancreas in the mesentery of the jejunum: Imaging findings  [PDF]
Nihal Uslu
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.24075

Ectopic pancreatic tissue in the mesentery of the jejunum is an entity that is seen very rarely. Most patients are asymptomatic and usually this is an incidental ?nding at autopsy or laparotomy. Most of the cases are clinically silent, but symptoms either might be due to the localization of the ectopic tissue or due to the complications including obstruction or bleeding. Surgery is not indicated unless complications occur, so diagnosis is very important for prevention of unnecessary surgery. Here, we present a case that had ectopic pancreatic tissue in the mesentery of the jejunum. We show the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of this patient.

An entity mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma: Granulomatous mastitis  [PDF]
Nihal Uslu
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.24067

Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a chronic inflammatory breast disease. This pathology was first described by Kersler and Wolloch in 1972 [1]. It is an uncommon cause of a breast mass [2-5]. Awareness of this entity is crucial, because it can clinically and radiologically mimic breast carcinoma, fibroadenoma or fibrocystic changes [3]. It has several appearances radiologically also; biopsy still remains the only way for final diagnoses. Here we present a woman with a breast mass. Our aim is to show ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of GM by reviewing the literature.

Analysis and Design Aspects of a Series Power Semiconductor Array with Digital Waveform Control Capability for Single Phase AC Voltage Regulators and Other Applications  [PDF]
Nihal Kularatna, Chandani Jindasa
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2011.23035
Abstract: A series connected power semiconductor array, with digital control capability could be used for developing single phase AC regulators or other applications such as AC electronic loads. This technique together with an ordinary gapless transformer could be used to develop a low cost AC voltage regulator (AVR) to provide better or comparable specifications with bulky ferro-resonant AVR types. One primary advantage of the technique is that digital control can be used to minimize harmonics. Commencing with a review of AC voltage regulator techniques for single phase power conditioning systems, an analysis and design aspects of this technique is presented with experimental results for AVRs. Guidelines on how to utilize the technique in a generalized basis is also summarized together with a summary of a technique for achieving harmonic control.
An in Vitro Approach for the Conservation of Meizotropis pellita: An Endangered and Endemic Plant  [PDF]
Lalit Singh, Tapan Kumar Nailwal, Lalit Tewari
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.46151

An efficient protocol for high frequency in vitro regeneration of Meizotropis pellita an endangered and endemic plant was developed. In vitro germination of the seeds of Patwa was achieved successfully after incubation for 10 -15 days and plantlets up to a height of 5 -7 cm with profuse rooting were observed after incubation for 7 weeks in hormone free MS medium. This in vitro germination totally reduced contamination that used to occur in the explant taken from the field. Callus induction and proliferation were observed in leaf explants after 15 -20 days of incubation in MS medium containing 2 -4, D (9.06 μM) alone or in combination with 2 -4, D (9.06 μM) + 2-iP (7.38 μM). Shoot regeneration was achieved from 2 months old callus explant in MS

Performance Tradeoff with Routing Protocols for Radio Models in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Manju Bala, Lalit Awasthi
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.22008
Abstract: In this paper, we have simulated and evaluated the performance tradeoff with routing protocols: Constrained Flooding, the Real-Time Search and the Adaptive Tree on MICA and MICAz platform with different radio models using PROWLER for wireless sensor networks. The simulation results establish that the MICAz motes give low latency, high throughput, high energy consumption, low efficiency but better lifetime while the MICA motes give high success rate and less loss rate. It has been, thus, concluded that in case of all the radio models the MICAz is preferably better than MICA in applications where energy is a constraint. Moreover, use of MICAz motes increases the network lifetime in comparison to MICA for the radio models. Further, the AT protocol can be applied to achieve better energy consumption, efficiency and lifetime in real time for wireless sensor networks.
Hypergammaglobulinemic purpura of waldenstorm associated with sjogren’s syndrome in a young female responding to rituximab treatment  [PDF]
Neeraj Jain, Lalit Duggal
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22034

Hypergammaglobulinemic Purpura of Waldenstorm is one of the uncommon conditions with purpura and is often associated with collagen vascular disease. It is difficult to treat and sometimes needs anti CD 20 molecules for resistant cases.

Soil Salinity Mapping and Monitoring in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Using Remote Sensing Technology: A Review  [PDF]
Amal Allbed, Lalit Kumar
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.24040

Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem especially in arid and semiarid areas. It either occurs naturally or is human-induced. High levels of soil salinity negatively affect crop growth and productivity leading land degradation ultimately. Thus, it is important to monitor and map soil salinity at an early stage to enact effective soil reclamation program that helps lessen or prevent future increase in soil salinity. Remote sensing has outperformed the traditional method for assessing soil salinity offering more informative and professional rapid assessment techniques for monitoring and mapping soil salinity. Soil salinity can be identified from remote sensing data obtained by different sensors by way of direct indicators that refer to salt features that are visible at the soil surface as well as indirect indicators such as the presence of halophytic plant and assessing the performance level of salt-tolerant crops. The purposes of this paper are to 1) discuss some soil salinity indicators; 2) review the satellite sensors and methods used for remote monitoring, detecting and mapping of soil salinity, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions; 3) review various spectral vegetation and salinity indices that have been developed and proposed for soil salinity detection and mapping, with an emphasis on soil salinity mapping and assessment in arid and semi-arid regions; and 4) highlight the most important issues limiting the use of remote sensing for soil salinity mapping, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions.

Virtual Numbers to Represent Entangled Quantum States  [PDF]
Lalit A. Patel
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2014.41002

In the existing formalism of quantum states, probability amplitudes of quantum states are complex numbers. A composition of entangled quantum states, such as a Bell state, cannot be decomposed into its constituent quantum states, implying that quantum states lose their identities when they get entangled. This is contrary to the observation that a composition of entangled quantum states decays back to its constituent quantum states. To eliminate this discrepancy, this paper introduces a new type of numbers, called virtual numbers, which produce zero upon multiplication with complex numbers. In the proposed formalism of quantum states, probability amplitudes of quantum states are general numbers made of complex and virtual numbers. A composition of entangled quantum states, such as a Bell state, can then be decomposed into its constituent quantum states, implying that quantum states retain their identities when they get entangled.

Innovation for Making Potable Water Available in Saline Groundwater Areas  [PDF]
Lalit Mohan Sharma
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.614118
Abstract: Groundwater salinity is a widespread problem around the world with adverse consequences on health, soil quality and overall eco-systems. With the rapidly growing demands of groundwater, its exploitation is also accelerating. It is also changing the flow of the groundwater, which in turn causes ingress of sea water or intrusion of other saline groundwater or polluted water from the surrounding areas. The major consequences are scarcity of water even for domestic use and rise in the level and spread of groundwater salinity. An innovative technique of creating a pool of fresh groundwater within a saline aquifer is developed, which can address the issue. Technique is about recharging the saline aquifer with harvested rain water in such a way that recharged rain water does not get mixed with the existing saline groundwater rather it forms pool of fresh water in the saline aquifer. Water from this pool can be extracted without getting it mixed with saline groundwater. This innovation also eliminates the need of cost intensive provision of water storage structures to store rain water for fulfilling the domestic water needs. Thus, the saline aquifer unsuitable or otherwise useless for groundwater development can be used.
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