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A STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF VALSARTAN AND RAMIPRIL IN BINARY COMBINATION
LAKSHMI,K. S; SIVASUBRAMANIAN,LAKSHMI;
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072010000200017
Abstract: a simple, sensitive and validated hplc method has been developed to determine valsartan and ramipril simultaneously in synthetic mixture. chromatographic separation was achieved on a c-18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile and water in the ratio 55:45 (v/v), ph adjusted to 3.6 with 88% orthophosphoric acid at a wavelength of 215 nm. linearity of the method was found to be in the concentration range of 50-250 μg/ml for valsartan andl00-500 μg/ml for ramipril with correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. the total eluting time for the two components is less than five minutes. the method can be used for simultaneous determination of valsartan and ramipril.
A STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF VALSARTAN AND RAMIPRIL IN BINARY COMBINATION
K. S LAKSHMI,LAKSHMI SIVASUBRAMANIAN
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2010,
Abstract: A simple, sensitive and validated HPLC method has been developed to determine valsartan and ramipril simultaneously in synthetic mixture. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C-18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile and water in the ratio 55:45 (v/v), pH adjusted to 3.6 with 88% orthophosphoric acid at a wavelength of 215 nm. Linearity of the method was found to be in the concentration range of 50-250 μg/ml for valsartan andl00-500 μg/ml for ramipril with correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. The total eluting time for the two components is less than five minutes. The method can be used for simultaneous determination of valsartan and ramipril.
Wireless Transmission Based Image Quality Analysis Using Uni-Level Haar Wavelet Transform  [PDF]
K. Senthamilselvan, Lakshmi Dhevi
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78156
Abstract: This article deals with picture excellence examination by different parameters utilizing uni-level Haar wavelet transmission in excess of remote channel. The quality is analyzed based on power. The goal is towards reducing absolute power assigned in favour of picture compression and communication, while power in favour of every bit is reserved at prearranged value. Two Power Algorithms were presented. The greatest iterative power control calculation and Minimum Power Adaptation Algorithm (MPAA) are proposed. Those algorithms methodology was utilized for improving the aggregate power dispensed for multimedia such as picture because of input compression and transmission focus towards a settled bit source mutilation. Simulations were performed utilizing Haar wavelet than Additive White Gaussian Ration (AWGN) channel. Different picture excellence parameters, for example, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), M-Normalized Cross-Correla- tion, Average Difference; Structural Content parameters, for example, Maximum Difference, Normalized Absolute Error, Elapsed Time, CPU time, demonstrate a improved presentation with MPAA, Maximum Power Adaptation Algorithms (MAPAA) instead of Conventional Power Adaptation Algorithm (CPAA).
THE MODULATORY ROLE OF ZINC IN THE SILKW, BOMBYX MORI (L)
K Lakshmi Devi,K Yellamma
Bioscience Discovery , 2013,
Abstract: Examining the modulatory effect of zinc chloride on various aspects of silkworm such as Morphometric traits, Protein profiles in various tissues like silk gland, haemolymph, fat body and muscle of the V instar silk worm larvae and also the Economic parameters of the cocoon. Different concentrations of zinc such as 2μg/ml, 5μg/ml, 10μg/ml and 20μg/ml, were prepared by dissolving Zinc chloride in distilled water. The experimental worms were divided in to four groups and fed with mulberry leaves soaked in these selected doses of zinc chloride and control groups of silkworm’s larvae were fed with normal mulberry leaves four times in a day throughout the 5th instar period. Both control and experimental larvae were sacrificed on selected days viz. 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day. Cumulatively, the findings of the present study finally suggest that zinc induced active turnover of all profiles of protein metabolic events in the posterior silk gland, creating the conditions that are highly congenial for growth and silk production.The present investigation is one such attempt in the direction of improving the economic parameters of the silk.
Chronic Sinusitis with Frontal Mucocele: A Case Report  [PDF]
D. S. Deenadayal, B. Naveen Kumar, K. Lakshmi Sameeri
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.33026
Abstract:

Purpose: To describe a type IIIa frontal mucocele in a case of diffuse nasal polyposis. To discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic and treatment modalities. Study Design: A case report including radiological, histopathological analysis and review of literature. Methods: A case report from a tertiary care centre. Histopathologic and radiological details are reviewed. Results: This case report presents a 59-year-old male who came to us with fronal headaches and nose blocks of 6 months’ duration. Clinical examination revealed bilateral nasal polyposis. Plain CT scan of paranasal sinuses revealed a circumscribed lesion with erosion of inner table of left frontal sinus amidst pan sinus haziness. We addressed the condition by combined FESS with eyebrow incision frontal craniotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a mucocele. Conclusion: In combined approach, eyebrow incision minimal frontal craniotomy remains the optimal option for visualisation of entire sinus, especially in laterally placed frontal mucoceles; while FESS helps in maintaining physiological drainage and proper follow-up.


Effect of Chemical Enhancers in Transdermal Permeation of Alfuzosin Hydrochloride
D. Prasanthi,P. K. Lakshmi
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/965280
Abstract:
Effect of Chemical Enhancers in Transdermal Permeation of Alfuzosin Hydrochloride
D. Prasanthi,P. K. Lakshmi
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/965280
Abstract: The objective of the present study is to explore the efficient chemical penetration enhancer among the various enhancers available in overcoming the stratum corneum barrier in transdermal delivery of Alfuzosin hydrochloride (AH). The different enhancers were incorporated in 2% Carbopol gel which was selected as a control and evaluated by in vitro diffusion studies through dialysis membrane and permeation through the rat abdominal skin using Keshary-Chien diffusion cells. All the enhancers increased the release rate through the dialysis membrane when compared with control except oleic acid which decreased the release rate but showed maximum solubility of the drug. Among the various enhancers Transcutol 20% and tween-20 (2%) showed the highest cumulative amount (Q24) of 702.28 ± 6.97?μg/cm2 and 702.74 ± 7.49?μg/cm2, respectively. A flux rate of 31.08 ± 0.21?μg/cm2/hr by Transcutol 20% and 30.38 ± 0.18?μg/cm2/hr by tween-20 (2%) was obtained. Transcutol 20% showed decreased lag time of 0.13 ± 0.05?hr. The lowest skin content of 342.33 ± 5.30?μg/gm was seen with oleic acid 2.5%. Maximum enhancement of flux by 3.94-fold was obtained with transcutol 20%. Primary skin irritation studies were performed with rabbit. Histopathological studies of transcutol 20% showed marked changes such as degeneration and infiltration of mononuclear cells in dermis indicating the effect of transcutol on the skin. Among the different enhancers transcutol is efficient in enhancing transdermal delivery of AH. 1. Introduction Alfuzosin hydrochloride (AH), the -adrenoreceptor antagonist, is used for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is indicated for long-term therapy in place of surgery. It undergoes extensive first pass metabolism, has a bioavailability of 60%, half-life (3–5 hour), (1.6), molecular weight (425.9 Daltons) and dose (10?mg per day) [1]. Its physicochemical properties suggest that transdermal drug delivery would be beneficial, but the challenging aspect in transdermal delivery route is permeation through stratum corneum [2]. Several technological approaches have been attempted to overcome this challenge. They are physical approaches, chemical approaches, formulation approaches, and so forth [3]. Chemical approach is the most widely implemented. Chemical enhancers based on their physico-chemical properties enhance permeation through the skin by different mechanisms such as creating diffusion pathways for drug by extracting lipids from the skin, disrupting highly ordered lipid lamellae by partitioning into lipid bilayers, fluidization of lipids, and enhancing the
Current-voltage characteristics in donor-acceptor systems: Implications of a spatially varying electric field
S. Lakshmi,Swapan K. Pati
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.193410
Abstract: We have studied the transport properties of a molecular device composed of donor and acceptor moieties between two electrodes on either side. The device is considered to be one-dimensional with different on-site energies and the non-equilibrium properties are calculated using Landauer's formalism. The current-voltage characteristics is found to be asymmetric with a sharp Negative Differential Resistance at a critical bias on one side and very small current on the other side. The NDR arises primarily due to the bias driven electronic structure change from one kind of insulating phase to another through a highly delocalized conducting phase. Our model can be considered to be the simplest to explain the experimental current-voltage characteristics observed in many molecular devices.
Understanding the Role of Monsoon Depressions on Intraseasonal Oscillations over Indian Sub-Continent  [PDF]
P. Suneetha, K. Naga Lakshmi
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2018.94015
Abstract:
Summer monsoon and its synoptic, meso-scale systems provide 80% of total annual rainfall over India. Monsoon depressions are weak, low-pressure circulation within the monsoon trough that forms in the head Bay of Bengal and moves northwestward and westward across the Indian sub-continent during summer monsoon season. Another convective system from this planetary scale circulation is the Intraseasonal Oscillation (ISO) also occurs in the daily mode. It is very important to study the impact of monsoon depressions in synoptic scale on ISOs through its strength, frequency and duration. In the recent decades, frequency of monsoon depressions and sea surface temperature over head Bay is decreasing while the intensity is increasing over Bay of Bengal. The study brings out the relationship between the ISOs and monsoon depressions over Bay of Bengal through their structure and movement for the period 1990-2014. Composites of monsoon and no monsoon depression days are calculated and found that rainfall is mainly occupied over Kerala and Interior Peninsula within the range of 10 - 50 cm during monsoon depression days. Relative vorticity brings out that the shallower layer of convergence mainly from 1000 - 850 hPa level and a deeper layer of weak divergence above it is mainly associated with the depression. Next, thermodynamic structure of monsoon depression and its intensity is directly proportional to the increasing of CAPE. Wavelet spectrum also indicates the intraseasonal oscillations are very active during monsoon depression days. Finally this study helps to bring out plausible reasons through circulations, dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics involved in monsoon depression days in association with the ISOs.
Transform Coefficient Histogram and Edge Preserving Image Enhancement Using Contrast Entropy
K. Sundar Srinivas,K. Naga Lakshmi Kalyani
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: Enhancing an image in such a way that maintains image edges is a difficult problem. Many current methods for image enhancement either smooth edges on a small scale while improving contrast on a global scale or enhance edges on a large scale while amplifying noise on a small scale. Many applications of histograms for the purposes of image processing are well known. However, applying this process to the transform domain by way of a transform coefficient histogram has not yet been fully explored. This paper proposes three methods of image enhancement: a) logarithmic transform histogram matching, b) logarithmic transform histogram shifting, and c) logarithmic transform histogram shaping using Gaussian distributions. They are based on the properties of the logarithmic transform domain histogram and histogram equalization. The presented algorithms use the fact that the relationship between stimulus and perception is logarithmic and afford a marriage between enhancement qualities and computational efficiency. A human visual system based quantitative measurement of image contrast improvement is also defined. This helps choose the best parameters and transform for each enhancement. A number of experimental results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithms
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