Abstract:
We review some recent results surrounding a general mechanism for producing chaotic behavior in periodically-kicked oscillators. The key geometric ideas are illustrated via a simple linear shear model.

Abstract:
We report the results of a numerical study of nonequilibrium steady states for a class of Hamiltonian models. In these models of coupled matter-energy transport, particles exchange energy through collisions with pinned-down rotating disks. In [Commun. Math. Phys. 262 (2006)], Eckmann and Young studied 1D chains and showed that certain simple formulas give excellent approximations of energy and particle density profiles. Keeping the basic mode of interaction in [Eckmann-Young], we extend their prediction scheme to a number of new settings: 2D systems on different lattices, driven by a variety of boundary (heat bath) conditions including the use of thermostats. Particle-conserving models of the same type are shown to behave similarly. The second half of this paper examines memory and finite-size effects, which appear to impact only minimally the profiles of the models tested in [Eckmann-Young]. We demonstrate that these effects can be significant or insignificant depending on the local geometry. Dynamical mechanisms are proposed, and in the case of directional bias in particle trajectories due to memory, correction schemes are derived and shown to give accurate predictions.

Abstract:
Guided by a geometric understanding developed in earlier works of Wang and Young, we carry out some numerical studies of shear-induced chaos. The settings considered include periodic kicking of limit cycles, random kicks at Poisson times, and continuous-time driving by white noise. The forcing of a quasi-periodic model describing two coupled oscillators is also investigated. In all cases, positive Lyapunov exponents are found in suitable parameter ranges when the forcing is suitably directed.

Abstract:
We present the results of a detailed study of energy correlations at steady state for a 1-D model of coupled energy and matter transport. Our aim is to discover -- via theoretical arguments, conjectures, and numerical simulations -- how spatial covariances scale with system size, their relations to local thermodynamic quantities, and the randomizing effects of heat baths. Among our findings are that short-range covariances respond quadratically to local temperature gradients, and long-range covariances decay linearly with macroscopic distance. These findings are consistent with exact results for the simple exclusion and KMP models.

Abstract:
We consider $C^2$ Fr\'echet differentiable mappings of Banach spaces leaving invariant compactly supported Borel probability measures, and study the relation between entropy and volume growth for a natural notion of volume defined on finite dimensional subspaces. SRB measures are characterized as exactly those measures for which entropy is equal to volume growth on unstable manifolds, equivalently the sum of positive Lyapunov exponents of the map. In addition to numerous difficulties incurred by our infinite-dimensional setting, a crucial aspect to the proof is the technical point that the volume elements induced on unstable manifolds are regular enough to permit distortion control of iterated determinant functions. The results here generalize previously known results for diffeomorphisms of finite dimensional Riemannian manifolds, and are applicable to dynamical systems defined by large classes of dissipative parabolic PDEs.

Abstract:
This work contains the results from a comprehensive study of a new class of attractors. The attractors in this class are characterized by strong local instability, but they are not uniformly hyperbolic. Rigorous results on their dynamical, geometric and statistical properties are presented.

Abstract:
As a paradigm for heat conduction in 1 dimension, we propose a class of models represented by chains of identical cells, each one of which containing an energy storage device called a "tank". Energy exchange among tanks is mediated by tracer particles, which are injected at characteristic temperatures and rates from heat baths at the two ends of the chain. For stochastic and Hamiltonian models of this type, we develop a theory that allows one to derive rigorously -- under physically natural assumptions -- macroscopic equations for quantities related to heat transport, including mean energy profiles and tracer densities. Concrete examples are treated for illustration, and the validity of the Fourier Law in the present context is discussed.

Abstract:
We consider a heat conduction model introduced in \cite{Collet-Eckmann 2009}. This is an open system in which particles exchange momentum with a row of (fixed) scatterers. We assume simplified bath conditions throughout, and give a qualitative description of the dynamics extrapolating from the case of a single particle for which we have a fairly clear understanding. The main phenomenon discussed is {\it freezing}, or the slowing down of particles with time. As particle number is conserved, this means fewer collisions per unit time, and less contact with the baths; in other words, the conductor becomes less effective. Careful numerical documentation of freezing is provided, and a theoretical explanation is proposed. Freezing being an extremely slow process, however, the system behaves as though it is in a steady state for long durations. Quantities such as energy and fluxes are studied, and are found to have curious relationships with particle density.

Abstract:
This paper is about nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) of a class of stochastic models in which particles exchange energy with their "local environments" rather than directly with one another. The physical domain of the system can be a bounded region of $\mathbb R^d$ for any $d \ge 1$. We assume that the temperature at the boundary of the domain is prescribed and is nonconstant, so that the system is forced out of equilibrium. Our main result is local thermal equilibrium in the infinite volume limit. In the Hamiltonian context, this would mean that at any location $x$ in the domain, local marginal distributions of NESS tend to a probability with density $\frac{1}{Z} e^{-\beta (x) H}$, permitting one to define the local temperature at $x$ to be $\beta(x)^{-1}$. We prove also that in the infinite volume limit, the mean energy profile of NESS satisfies Laplace's equation for the prescribed boundary condition. Our method of proof is duality: by reversing the sample paths of particle movements, we convert the problem of studying local marginal energy distributions at $x$ to that of joint hitting distributions of certain random walks starting from $x$, and prove that the walks in question become increasingly independent as system size tends to infinity.

Abstract:
We study heat transport in the context of Hamiltonian and related stochastic models with nearest-neighbor coupling, and derive a universal law for the temperature profiles of a large class of such models. This law contains a parameter $\alpha$, and is linear only when $\alpha=1$. The value of $\alpha$ depends on energy-exchange mechanisms, including the range of motion of tracer particles and their times of flight.