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STUDY OF STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE OF NAAG BHASMA IN RELATION TO ITS PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Lagad C. E.,Sawant R. S.,Bhange P. V.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) should to be designed, implemented and set for all Ayurvedic drugs one by one for globalization Ayurveda. In this study, an attempt has been made to introduce SOP for preparation of Naag Bhasma [NB] & its analytical study. Study was conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of NB was performed by following Samanya Shodhana, Jarana, Marana of Naag [Pb] & its analytical study. Naga Bhasma was prepared in two batches namely Batch A & B. In this method purified Haratala (Orpiment) were taken as media. The percentage loss in the Naga Bhasma in Batch A was 63%, while in case of Batch B was 60.5%. Raw drugs, in process materials and the final products were analyzed physico-chemically and comparison was drawn to lay down pharmacopoeial standards. The average percentage purity of Naga decreased from 99.46% to 86.57% after Shodhana. The percentage of (Pb) lead in Naga Bhasma was 58.4% and 57.89% respectively in Batch A and B. Both the Bhasmas were in PbS form chemically with other elements like Ca, Si, Fe, Al, K, As, Mg, Ni, Mn, Cd, Zn in trace amount.
STUDY OF STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE OF NAAG SHODHANA IN RELATION TO ITS PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Lagad C. E.,Sawant R. S.,Bhatambre Y. S.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) should to be designed, implemented and set for all Ayurvedic drugs one by one for globalization Ayurveda. In this study, an attempt has been made to introduce SOP for preparation of Naag Shodhana [NS] & its analytical study. Study was conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of NS was performed by four different methods i.e. Samanya Shodhana, Vishesh Shodhana, Samanya Shodhana preceded by Vishesh Shodhana & control. Samples of unpurified & purified Naag (Pb) were analyzed physico-chemically and comparison was drawn to lay down pharmacopoeial standards. All the samples of Shodhit Naag obtained using textual references showed considerable increase in the percentage of Lead and decrease in the impurities. The Shodhana dravyas were also analyzed physico-chemically before and after Shodhana. But no significant differences were observed in their physico-chemical properties. The Naag obtained after dhalana in distilled water neither showed increase in the percentage of Lead nor decrease in the percentage of impurities. However, no significant difference was found in the Shodhit Naag obtained from various types of Shodhanas viz. Samanya Shodhana, Vishesh Shodhana and Vishesh Shodhana preceded by Samanya samples in relation to their physico-chemical properties. It can be concluded from study that it is imperative to perform Shodhana process as described in the Ayurved texts, as Shodhana Dravyas definitely play an important role in decreasing the impurities.
AN APPROACH TOWARDS STANDARDIZATION OF SWARNA MAKSHIK BHASMA (AN AYURVEDIC PREPARATION)
Lagad C. E.,Sawant Ranjeet S.,Yelambkar Prajakta
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Swarna Makshik (Chalco-pyrite), a mineral having various therapeutic uses in Pandu (Anemia), Kushtha (Skin disorders) and Kamala (Jaundice) has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to standardize raw and processed swarna makshik using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered swarna makshik was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days till liberation of sulphur fumes stopped completely. Bhasma of this purified swarna makshik was obtained by triturating it with purified sulphur and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 13 putas, and for ring in each puta, 3.5 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds after the particular process of marana.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARECTARIZATION OF VANGA BHASMA
Lagad C. E.,Sawant R. S.,Tayade A. N.,Wadodkar D. S.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Bhasma is very effective when prepared by appropriate method and used in accurate therapeutic dose. Vanga Bhasma [VB]is being used in genitor-urinary disorders since long in Ayurveda. The pharmaceutical processing of VB was performed by four steps i.e. Samanya Shodhana, Vishesh Shodhana, Jarana&Marana.To assure the quality of bhasma,rasa shastra quality control tests like rekhapurna, varitara, Niruttha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed [Physcicochemical characterization] using ICP-AES, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that Vanga bhasma contains major compound SnO2and Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA) with DTA showed no weight loss and no physical or chemical changes so it can be an alternative and supportive to Niruttha Pariksha. It may be concluded that raw Vanga is a Simple compound which gets converted into a mixture of complex compounds after the particular process of marana.
PREPARATION OF RASASINDURA BY MODIFIED PORTABLE VALUKAYANTRA VIS-à-VIS TRADITIONAL METHOD
Manish S. Bhoyar,C.E. Lagad,D.S. Wadodkar
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Kupipakva Rasayana is the most potent preparation which is frequently used by Rasavaidyas. But traditional method of preparation of Kupipakva Rasayana seems to be quite complicated. Time duration, more manpower, more fuel, pollution and other obstacles add to negligence of its preparation. To overcome above obstacles, some alteration in the traditional method has been made without interfering concept behind the tradition. Rasasindura (Mercuric sulphide) was prepared by Modified portable Valukayantra vis-à-vis traditional method where detailed documentation of each and every step of procedure was done. To assess the quality of prepared medicine, both the samples were subjected to same Ayurvedic as well as modern parameters and results were interpreted. The study establishes efficacy and applicability of modified portable valukayantra in the preparation of Rasasindura (Mercuric sulphide).
Caregiving, Family Burden and Medication Adherence  [PDF]
E. Ennis, C. Corry
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.31009
Abstract: Caregivers are an essential component of any community. Advances in medicalcare have brought about an increasing population which is reliant on care, and communities deal with most of the burdens and practicalities of public health issues. In order to provide efficient support services, we need to know the challenges of caregivers so that we can address what types of support they require. The current study examines whether those who have a mental health difficulty and are either engaged in caregiving duties or perceive family burden may be less adherent to their medications in comparison with those who also have a mental health difficulty but do not perceive family burden or perform caregiving. Data used was from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (NCS-R), which examines the mental health profile of the American population. The group examined were those who received the family burden interview, and indicated that they were taking a prescription medication for a mental health difficulty under the supervision of a health professional (N = 489). Zero inflated Poisson regression showed that caregiving/family burden was unrelated to adherence to supervised prescription medicines for mental health difficulties, regardless of the kinship of who was ill, or the nature of their illness (physical versus mental). Adherence to prescription medications for mental health difficulties does not appear to be one of the challenges faced by this group. Findings are discussed in terms of the economic and moral importance of health professionals identifying and understanding the challenges experienced by caregivers/those reporting family burden. This is necessary so that appropriate interventions and support services can be targeted, and further research plays an important role in achieving this objective.
Experimental Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Recycled Low Density Polyethylene/Bean Pod Ash Particulate Bio-Composites  [PDF]
M. C. Ekwedigwe, E. E. Nnuka, C. U. Atuanya
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.35039
Abstract: The evaluation of bean pod ash particles on the properties of recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE) composites was studied. The RLDPE/bean pod ash particles (CBPp) composites were produced using compounding and compressive moulding techniques. Factorial design of experiment and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed for optimization. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the composites were determined. The results obtained showed that the optimum values of flexural strength were obtained at 140°C, 12 minutes, 40 wt% CBPp and 6 Mpa. The hardness values, tensile and bending strengths of the composite increased by the addition of beans pod ash particles to RLDPE composites. Compressive properties of RLDPE matrix and composites were 13.00 and 18.25 N/mm2. The fairly uniform distribution of the bean pod ash particles in the microstructure of the composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The obtained results of the developed composites have shown that the beans pod waste could be used as a biodegradable eco-friendly reinforcement.
Perception of Blood Donation among Medical and Pharmaceutical Science Students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka  [PDF]
S. A. Nwabueze, C. C. Nnebue, E. C. Azuike, C. A. Ezenyeaku, C. C. Aniagboso, O. E. Ezemonye, E. D. Azuike
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.47061
Abstract:

Background: Safe blood is a vital component in improving healthcare globally and millions of lives are saved each year through blood donation. But most hospitals in the developing countries face challenges of constant supply of blood to carry out different life saving procedures that require blood, due to paucity of blood donors. Many studies have been done on the perception of blood donation but only a few have been on Medical and Pharmaceutical Students. Aim: To determine the perception of blood donation among Medical and Pharmaceutical Students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi and Agulu Campuses respectively. Material and Methods: Stratified sampling technique was used to divide the students into strata (200, 300, 400, 500, and 600), then simple random sampling was used to select different respondents from each class and self-administered questionnaires were given to the respondents. Data was collected and results were analyzed. Results: 294 respondents, 147 medical students and 147 pharmaceutical students participated in the study 141 (95.9%) of medical students and 137 (93.2%) of pharmaceutical students had heard of blood donation. 139 (94.6%) of medical students and 140 (95.2%) of pharmaceutical students knew their blood groups. 59.5% of the respondents had donated blood. The commonest motivating factor towards blood donation is “to save a friend or family member”. Conclusion: The knowledge of the students regarding blood donation was high but the practice of blood donation was low.

Characterization of Tuberculosis Cases Presenting in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in South-Eastern Nigeria  [PDF]
E. D. Adinma, E. C. Azuike, S. A. Nwabueze, C. C. Nnebue, E. D. Azuike, D. C. Obi, I. C. Iloghalu, K. N. Okonkwo, M. C. Ohamaeme
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.49082
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis is second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer worldwide, due to a single infectious agent. Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) is presently the WHO recommended programme to fight tuberculosis worldwide. There is need to understand the characteristics of patients who receive treatment for tuberculosis. This will help modify the strategies to fight the scourge of tuberculosis. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the DOTS clinic at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. The records of patients who received treatment from the clinic from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2012 were reviewed. Three hundred and fifteen patients were included in the study. Important characteristics of the patients were retrieved. Associations between patients’ characteristics were determined using relevant tests of significance. Results: Three hundred and fifteen patients were included in the study. There were more male patients (59%). The reproductive age group (37.5%) was more than the other age groups. Mean age was 33.1 (±18.5) years. There were more rural patients (50.2%) than urban patients (49.8%). There were more pulmonary TB patients (87.3%) than extrapulmonary TB patients (12.7%). There were more sputum AFB negative patients (45.4%) than positive patients (41.3%). There were more HIV negative patients (59.4%) than positive patients (40.6%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated some important characteristics of tuberculosis patients. Such knowledge if taken into consideration in the tuberculosis control programme will definitely improve the outcome of the programme.
Tibialization of Fibula in Treatment of Major Bone Gap Defect of the Tibia: A Case Report  [PDF]
O. C. Nwokike, E. E. Esezobor, D. O. Olomu, E. O. Edomwonyi, J. E. Onuminya
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2015.58032
Abstract: Gap bone defect is a major challenge. Its treatment has evolved over the years from amputation to limb reconstruction through vascularised graft, distraction osteogenesis and use of customised implants. Availability and affordability of these innovative techniques have always been an additional challenge in the developing resource poor countries. We report the use of Tibialization of Ipsilateral fibula first suggested by Hahns in 1884 to bridge a gap of 12 cm in an 8 year old male, with segmental tibia loss from chronic osteomyelitis. We did an end to end transposition of the ipsilateral fibular into the tibia gap defect in a one stage procedure. This was after eradication of the infective process of osteomyelitis. He commenced partial weight bearing ambulation in cast at 3 months and out of cast ambulation at 18 months post surgery. The transposed fibula was 75% tibialized at 18 months post surgery. Conclusion: Fibular is a useful armamentarium in filling segmental bone defect.
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