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Learning by Copying a Piratable Good  [PDF]
Francisco Martínez-Sánchez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49099
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the behavior of a multiproduct monopolist, a duopolist and consumers who are able to learn by copying. We show that the DRM systems implemented by the digital industry have adverse consequences, because they hinder the use of original goods and provide consumers with an incentive for copying. Finally, we show that the Cournot effect may fail, unlike previous studies.
Perfil clínico de los pacientes adultos mayores anticoagulados con warfarina del Hospital Nacional de Geriatría y Gerontología
Laínez-Sánchez,Luis Alberto; Villalobos-Masis,Cynthia;
Acta Médica Costarricense , 2011,
Abstract: aim: the national hospital of geriatrics and gerontology (hngg), handles tens of patients which receives an oral anti-coagulation therapy and which come from diverse provinces of the country; the study realised a clinical and socio-demographic characterization of the anticoagulated older adult population, which receives control and treatment in the external consultation of anti-coagulated persons during the period 2006-2007. methods:141 older adult patients were studied, all of them anti-coagulated with warfarin during the period 2006-2007. it was performed a descriptive analysis of the demographic and clinical characteristics of all the patients, making emphasis in the causes of the anti-coagulation, comorbitities, amount of medicines used, cognitive, functional and social status, quality of the anti-coagulation, reasons for the suspension of the treatment and complications. results: the average of age of the patients was of 78 years. the larger part of the population come from the cantons of san jose province, and possess a low academic level which does not surpass the primary schooling. the auricular fibrillation was the main diagnostic, which justifies the anti -coagulation therapy. the most important comorbidity was the combination between the cardiac insufficiency and the arterial hypertension. the larger part of the population uses 5 or more medicines apart from the warfarin. the group of study mainly presents an adequate cognitive status, a total functional independence or a minimal dependency, and they do not present a social risk. there was a high variability in the therapeutical effects of the warfarin, which reflects in the difficulty to reach optimal levels of inr in the larger part of the cites of control and in the amount of adjustments of treatment, necessary to improve the quality of same. the main reasons to suspend the therapy of anti-coagulation were the bad adherence to the treatment, a social network not involved and the adverse effects relatio
Perfil clínico de los pacientes adultos mayores anticoagulados con warfarina del Hospital Nacional de Geriatría y Gerontología Clinical Profile of Elderly Patients on Anticoagulation with Warfarin
Luis Alberto Laínez-Sánchez,Cynthia Villalobos-Masis
Acta Médica Costarricense , 2011,
Abstract: Objetivo: El Hospital Nacional de Geriatría y Gerontología (HNGG) maneja decenas de pacientes que reciben terapia de anticoagulación oral y que provienen de diferentes provincias del país; el estudio realizó una caracterización clínica y socio demográfica de la población adulta mayor anticoagulada que recibe control y tratamiento en la consulta externa de anticoagulados durante el periodo 2006-2007. Métodos: Se estudiaron 141 pacientes adultos mayores, anticoagulados con warfarina durante el periodo 2006-2007. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las características demográficas y clínicas de todos los pacientes enfatizando en causas de la anticoagulación, comorbilidades, cantidad de medicamentos utilizados, estado cognitivo, funcional y social, calidad de la anticoagulación, razones de suspensión del tratamiento y complicaciones. Resultados: El promedio de edad de los pacientes fue de 78 a os. La mayor parte de la población proviene de los cantones Central, Desamparados y Escazú, todos pertenecientes a la provincia de San José y poseen un nivel académico bajo que no sobrepasa la escolaridad primaria. La fibrilación auricular fue el principal diagnóstico, que justificó la terapia de anticoagulación. La comorbilidad más importante fue la combinación entre la insuficiencia cardiaca y la hipertensión arterial. La mayor parte de la población utiliza cinco o más medicamentos sin tomar en cuenta la warfarina. El grupo de estudio en su mayoría presentó una capacidad cognitiva normal, una independencia funcional total o dependencia mínima y no presentaban riesgo social. Existió una alta variabilidad en el efecto terapéutico de la warfarina, reflejada en la dificultad de alcanzar niveles óptimos de INR en la mayor parte de las citas de control y en la cantidad de ajustes de tratamiento necesarios para mejorar la calidad de la misma. Las principales razones para suspender la terapia de anticoagulación fueron: mala adherencia al tratamiento, red social poco comprometida y efectos adversos relacionados con la sobre anticoagulación (sangrados menores). Hubo una incidencia similar de sangrados menores y mayores (4.3%) y una mortalidad del 1.4%. Conclusión: El manejo del paciente adulto mayor que recibe terapia de anticoagulación oral es de alta complejidad hecho que se ve reflejado tanto en su perfil demográfico como clínico. Las complicaciones asociadas a la terapia no difirieron con las reportadas a nivel internacional. Aim: The National Hospital of Geriatrics and Gerontology (HNGG), handles tens of patients which receives an oral anti-coagulation therapy and which
Smoking Behaviour, Involuntary Smoking, Attitudes towards Smoke-Free Legislations, and Tobacco Control Activities in the European Union
Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez,Esteve Fernández,Marcela Fu,Silvano Gallus,Cristina Martínez,Xisca Sureda,Carlo La Vecchia,Luke Clancy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013881
Abstract: The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27).
The Role of an Imitating Firm in a Dynamic Context
Martínez-Sánchez,Francisco;
Lecturas de Economía , 2007,
Abstract: we analyze the effects of an imitating firm on the behavior of the innovating firm. the framework of analysis used is a dynamic duopoly model of vertical product differentiation, where both the innovator and the imitator compete simultaneously in price and quality. we obtain that when the market is small, the presence of an imitator encourages the innovator to increase its innovating process, so the entry of the imitator should not be obstructed; and, when the market is large, the imitator reduces the innovator's incentives to invest its economic resources in r&d and to provide a higher quality, so the entry of the imitator should not be encouraged.
Leaf and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability in a neotropical rain forest of nutrient-rich soil
Martínez-Sánchez,José Luis;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: the nitrogen and phosphorus supply in a lowland rain forest with a nutrient-rich soil was investigated by means of the leaf n/p quotient. it was hypothesised a high n and p supply to the forest ecosystem with a n and p rich soil. total n and extractable p were determined in the surface (10 cm) soil of three plots of the forest. total n was analysed by the kjeldahl method, and p was extracted with hcl and nh4f. the leaf n/p quotient was evaluated from the senesced leaves of 11 dominant tree species from the mature forest. samples of 5 g of freshly fallen leaves were collected from three trees of each species. nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and determined by photometry. concentrations of total n (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable p (4.11 μg g-1, n = 30) in the soil were high. as expected, p supply was sufficient, but contrary to expected, n supply was low (n/p = 11.8, n = 11). rev. biol. trop. 54(2): 357-361. epub 2006 jun 01.
Pasture trees in tropical México: the effect of soil nutrients on seedling growth
Martínez-Sánchez,José Luis;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: environment and seedling community under isolated trees in pastures are different from those in the open pasture. the effect of the pasture trees on the soil nutrients and on the seedling growth were investigated. seven isolated trees and eight plots were selected in two pastures of 12-yr and 32-yr old derived from a lowland rain forest with nutrient-rich soil at los tuxtlas, méxico. the soil concentrations of total n, p bray, k+, na+, ca2+ and mg2+, plus others physical and chemical characteristics, were compared between the pasture trees and the open -pasture. an experiment was done to test the hypothesis that soil from under the pasture trees was better for seedling growth than soil from the open pasture. seedlings of two native tree species and two domesticated species were grown in soil from the two different sites in a shade-house. the dry weight of the shoot and root/ shoot ratio were compared. only total n, p and na+ differed slightly in concentrations between the sites, but did not promote more seedling biomass. it seems that the soil at this location is sufficiently nutrient-rich even in the open pastures and over-ride any effect of the pasture trees on nutrient availability. rev. biol. trop. 54(2): 363-370. epub 2006 jun 01.
Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil
Martínez-Sánchez,José Luis;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: in tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree?s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. the aim of the study was to analyse n and p resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. it was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. the soil concentrations of total n and extractable p, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm) of three undisturbed forest plots at ?estación de biología los tuxtlas? on the east coast of mexico (18°34? - 18°36? n, 95°04? - 95°09? w). n and p resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. soil was rich in total n (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable p (4.11 μg g-1, n = 30). as expected, trees showed incomplete n (1.13%, n = 11) and p (0.11%, n = 11) resorption. with a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of n and p resorption. rev. biol. trop. 53(3-4): 353-359. epub 2005 oct 3.
La ozonoterapia gana evidencias científicas en el campo clínico Ozone therapy gains scientific evidence in the clinical field
Gregorio Martínez-Sánchez
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2013,
Abstract:
Pasture trees in tropical México: the effect of soil nutrients on seedling growth
José Luis Martínez-Sánchez
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: Environment and seedling community under isolated trees in pastures are different from those in the open pasture. The effect of the pasture trees on the soil nutrients and on the seedling growth were investigated. Seven isolated trees and eight plots were selected in two pastures of 12-yr and 32-yr old derived from a lowland rain forest with nutrient-rich soil at Los Tuxtlas, México. The soil concentrations of total N, P Bray, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, plus others physical and chemical characteristics, were compared between the pasture trees and the open -pasture. An experiment was done to test the hypothesis that soil from under the pasture trees was better for seedling growth than soil from the open pasture. Seedlings of two native tree species and two domesticated species were grown in soil from the two different sites in a shade-house. The dry weight of the shoot and root/ shoot ratio were compared. Only total N, P and Na+ differed slightly in concentrations between the sites, but did not promote more seedling biomass. It seems that the soil at this location is sufficiently nutrient-rich even in the open pastures and over-ride any effect of the pasture trees on nutrient availability. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2): 363-370. Epub 2006 Jun 01. Los árboles aislados de los pastizales presentan un micro ambiente y comunidad de plántulas diferente a los del pastizal abierto. Se investigó el efecto de los árboles aislados en los nutrientes del suelo y en el crecimiento de plántulas. Se seleccionaron siete árboles aislados y ocho parcelas en dos pastizales de 12 y 32 a os de edad, originados del cambio de uso de suelo de selva húmeda tropical con un suelo fértil, en Los Tuxtlas, México. Se compararon varias características físicas y químicas del suelo de los árboles y el pastizal abierto, así como las concentraciones de N total, P Bray, K+, Na+, Ca2+ y Mg2+. Se realizó un experimento para probar la hipótesis de que el suelo bajo los árboles aislados era mejor para el crecimiento de plántulas que el suelo del pastizal abierto. En un invernadero con suelo de los dos sitios diferentes, se pusieron a crecer plántulas de dos especies de árboles nativos y dos especies domesticadas. Se comparó el peso seco de la porción aérea de las plántulas y del cociente raíz/porción aérea. Solo difirieron ligeramente las concentraciones en suelo de N total, P y Na+ entre los sitios, pero estas no produjeron una mayor biomasa en las plántulas. Aparentemente el suelo en esta localidad es lo suficientemente rico en nutrientes aún en el pastizal abierto y opaca cualquier efecto de los árbol
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