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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1288 matches for " LM Adhikari "
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Effectiveness of Syndromic STI Case Management/RH Training in Knowledge and Practice of Auxiliary Health Workers
C Adhikari,L Sherchan,SB Thapa,LM Adhikari
Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jucms.v2i3.11826
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Auxiliary Health Workers (AHWs) are the undergraduate 2nd ?class health workforce of Nepal. Syndromic Sexually Transmitted Infection Case Management/Reproductive Health (SSCM/RH) training for AHWs is designed to develop knowledge, attitude and skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the training in knowledge and practice of AHWs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Achham district from where all AHWs were purposively selected for cross-sectional study. Total number of trained AHWs was 35 and untrained was 19, who were interviewed to fulfill the structured pretested questionnaire that included knowledge inventory and self reported practice.The data collected from29th May to 25th July, 2005. Written consent was taken from respondents after permission taken from Achham DHO. Statistical tests used were mean, median, SD, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's rho and chi-square. Values with p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS : All AHWs were male, with mean age of 32.1 years. Regarding knowledge, the scores in all syndromes diagnosis and treatment regimen were significantly different in two groups except in two syndromes. Two practices were found significant. The median knowledge score was 20 (IQR, 16-22) and 16 (IQR, 12-20) in trained and untrained respectively. Similarly, median practice score was found 14 (IQR, 10-16) and 7 (IQR, 6-9) in trained and untrained respectively. In aggregate, both the practice score (U=38.5, p<0.001, two-tailed) and the knowledge score (U=205, p=0.020, two-tailed) of trained group significantly differed from that of untrained. Knowledge and practice score was also found positively and moderately correlated (P=0.616, p<0.001, two-tailed). CONCLUSION: The training was effectivein bringing about changes both in knowledge and practice of AHWs. The higher the knowledge level, the higher the practice level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jucms.v2i3.11826 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Vol.2(3) 2014: 34-37
Role of Breastfeeding in Promoting Maternal & Child Health and Policy Implications in New Zealand  [PDF]
Adhikari Ramil
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.81009
Abstract: Worldwide researches over infant’s health have generally focused and aimed on understanding the complex factors (both positive and negative) affecting the infant’s health which further had ultimately helped them to frame policies nationally as well as internationally. Out of these factors, breastfeeding is one of the vital concerns for research related to infant mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed until first six months and receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods thereafter while breastfeeding continues for up to two years of age or beyond. In New Zealand (NZ), only 12% of 6 months old children were exclusively breastfed in 2006. The Ministry of Health plays a leading role for the protection, promotion and supporting breastfeeding in NZ. There are a number of areas/implications that NZ need to focus at such as providing antenatal and postpartum education, training of health professionals, community and workplace support, policy frameworks, breast-feeding statistics and intersectoral approach. These measures mainly focus at the initiation but less has been done to continue and support breastfeeding in NZ. In order to achieve this, all of these areas should be given prime and equal consideration. Hence, there is a strong need to develop strategies that maintain and promote breastfeeding at 6 months or beyond in NZ taking into considerations of various barriers and enabling factors.
Effect of Adjacent Product Price on Customer’s Willingness to Pay of Focal Brand: A Bayesian Approach  [PDF]
Atanu Adhikari
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.77131
Abstract: Psychological researchers, while studying internal reference price, have dealt with different types of psychological effects like attraction effect and compromise effect. While studying consumer reference price and willingness to pay, marketing researchers have focused on consumers’ perception about a brand by evaluating several attributes of that brand. Our research investigates the incremental effect on consumers’ willingness to pay in a context where an adjacent price is present, for instance, when a medium priced brand is associated with a high price brand than a moderately high priced brand. Unlike other pricing research, this research deals with consumer’s individual level heterogeneity as price sensitivity and consumers’ willingness to pay for a particular brand since they vary among individual. Hierarchical Bayes methodology is used to incorporate such heterogeneity. The study shows significant difference in consumers’ utility and her willingness to pay when a medium priced brand is compared with a high priced brand as against a moderately high priced brand.
Effect of Firm’s Information Dissemination Culture on Market Orientation: A Study in Tourism Sector  [PDF]
Atanu Adhikari
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.87089
Abstract: Despite being highly relevant, research on different aspects of market orientation and its effects on tourism industry are limited. No literature thus far has examined intra-organizational learning on market orientation. Additionally, emerging economies (e.g., India) could be a key destination of tourism, other than a few exceptions, existing tourism literature has not paid enough attention to such markets. We examine the impact of intra-organizational learning on market orientation in tourism sector. We contribute by introducing and investigating the intra-organizational learning, based on capability-based theories of the firm. Using Structural Equation Modeling, we have investigated responses to a survey of tourists, we test four hypotheses to establish different components of intra-organizational learning on market orientation. We discuss these findings, and directions for future research.
Effect of Reference Price in PWYTF Pricing in Tourism Sector  [PDF]
Atanu Adhikari
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94038
Abstract: While conventional pricing strategy involves sellers to decide price of a tourism product, tourism companies carry the risk of capacity underutilization in many occasions when fixed costs are already incurred. Pay What You Think Fair (PWYTF) pricing mechanism motivates tourists to pay a fair price for unutilized capacity, thereby, increasing sales and profit for marketers. This study shows that PWYTF pricing mechanism with a concrete reference price of customer can generate significantly higher revenue and profit for a long period of time. We have conducted three experiments to show that PWYTF pricing strategy is a profitable and sustainable pricing solution for tourism companies to increase revenue during off-season as well as underutilization of hired capacity. This study opens a new avenue in pricing methods used in tourism industry and contributes in significant way both in academic and practice.
Consumer Behavior in Low Involvement Product Purchase: A Stochastic Model  [PDF]
Atanu Adhikari
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.92030

Consumers provide less time and collect less information in buying decision of low involvement products. Consequently, they engage little thought process in their purchase decision. This is primarily because low involvement products are often low priced and carry low cost of failure. Along with uncertainties, in many situations, particularly in low involvement products and frequently purchased consumer packaged goods, little conscious decision making takes place. In such situations stochastic modelconcentrating on random nature of choice becomes more appropriate than deterministic approach. In this research, we develop a stochastic model for consumer buying decision of low involvement products. We have considered agitations a buyer experience during their purchase occasion. These agitations create internal force that stimulates consumer mind. These forces are chaotic, and so the resultant force which makes purchase decision random.

Choices of health care financing schemes for resource poor country: An analysis of Nepal’s experiences  [PDF]
Shiva Raj Adhikari
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58176

An appropriate health care financing scheme can improve the efficient, equitable, and effective use of health care resources; however, each popular health care financing scheme has some advantages and disadvantages. The designing of health care financing strategy to fit with the country specific features is not straightforward. In resource poor country, allocation of resources for health care services are always critical and frequently unstable due to nuances annual budget process, small fiscal space, uncertainties in contributions of external development partners. Considerable quantities of country specific researches require for the choice of an appropriate health care financing scheme. The paper illustrates possible better options for the government to pursue the goal of ensuring that the poor receive more benefits. The paper compares the benefit incidences and cost of services with different options purposed for primary health care services by utilizing recently collected data from different hospitals in Nepal. The paper offers an alternative policy such as a universal free care below the district level services; but in the district level which is top level of primary care, “extended targeted free health care” may be an efficient, fair, and relatively simple approach.

Sectoral Analysis of Energy Productivity Convergence: Empirical Evidence from Asian Countries  [PDF]
Dipa Adhikari, Yanying Chen
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.59090

This study examines the convergence of energy productivity at the sectoral level across 35 Asian countries from 1991 to 2011 by using the spatial panel data approach. The results reveal that mixed evidence of convergence process in the sectoral energy productivity for these 35 Asian countries. We found beta-convergence process exists in energy productivity in the construction, manufacturing, mining; manufacturing and utilities, transport; storage and communications, and wholesale; retail trade; restaurants and hotels sectors. While there is no evidence of energy productivity convergence in the agriculture; hunting; forestry and fishing sector over the study period. Moreover, the spatial spillover effect has a positive impact on the sectoral energy productivity growth in 35 Asian countries.

A new Net Resource Factor Based Alternative Method to Calculate Revised Target in Interrupted One Day Cricket Matches  [PDF]
Sanjeet Singh, Arnab Adhikari
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2015.53012
Abstract: This paper proposes an alternative method to calculate the revised target in interrupted 50 overs One Day international (ODI) cricket matches. Existing Duckworth Lewis (D/L) method and its modified versions only take available batting resources of the batting team into account and ignore the individual player’s excellence to calculate the revised target. Here, it is worth mentioning that individual player’s excellence varies in reality, and therefore quality of the available resources may affect the revised target significantly. Further in D/L method, revised target calculation depends only on the available batting resources of the batting team and does not consider the available bowling resources of the fielding team. Proposed method overcomes these two shortcomings by taking individual player’s excellence and available bowling resources of the fielding team into account. Individual player’s excellence has been determined by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a well-known non parametric mathematical programming technique. A new idea of “Net Resource Factor” has been introduced to capture both batting and bowling resources to calculate the revised target. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to incorporate the ability of individual players and bowling resources of the fielding team for calculating the revised target. A comparative analysis between the proposed method and D/L method has been carried out using the data of real ODI matches held in the past. To facilitate ground application of the proposed method, a flow chart and a “Net Resource Factor Table” have been designed.
Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) Trends on Kathmandu-Bhaktapur Road after Addition of Lanes  [PDF]
Guru Prasad Adhikari
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2016.63033
Abstract: Road traffic accidents are the outcome of the factors associated with the traffic system namely road users, road environment and vehicles. Despite good road surface, the Kathmandu-Bhaktapur road has high accident records. The traffic police record shows that 1530 accidents have occurred from July 2009 to June 2012. The area of study of this research is the Kathmandu-Bhaktapur road which starts at Tinkune Kathmandu and ends at Suryabinayak with a length of 9.1 kilometer, a section of Araniko highway heading towards China. The road is the first ever six lane road constructed in Nepal. The objectives of this research work are to identify locations with high accident numbers, to investigate possible causes of accidents, and to propose countermeasures for traffic safety along the Kathmandu-Bhaktapur road.
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