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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 80867 matches for " LIU Ruihan "
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Justification of the Coexistence of Formal and Informal Reciprocal Loans in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Jianmei Zhao, Ruihan Liu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76127
Abstract: This paper provides a new justification for the coexistence of formal and informal reciprocal loans in developing countries. We develop an investment model capable of comparing the financing costs of different financing alternatives. Notably, the reciprocal feature of interest-free loans from friends imposes an agnostic obligation on the borrower and generates implicit financing costs. The diverse financing outcomes hinge on the comparison of the explicit costs of formal loans and the implicit costs of reciprocal loans from friends.
The Influence of Psychological Distance Situations on Farmers’ Initial Trust in Purchasing Decision on Agricultural Materials: The Mediation Effect of Information Processing Mode

LI Tingting
,LI Yanjun,LIU Ruihan

- , 2016,
Abstract: 摘要 从社会距离和空间距离交互形成的心理距离情境视角出发,运用案例研究和定量研究相结合的实证方法,归纳了不同心理距离情境下农户选择农资零售店时的初始信任客体,揭示了心理距离情境和农户初始信任之间的中介机制。研究表明:在社会距离远、空间距离远的心理距离情境1下,农户的初始信任是基于经济理性的产品品牌信任,认知系统信息处理模式在心理距离情境和农户初始产品品牌信任之间发挥中介作用;在社会距离近、空间距离近的心理距离情境3下,农户的初始信任是基于人情的零售商信任,情感系统信息处理模式在心理距离情境和农户初始零售商信任之间发挥中介作用;在社会距离远、空间距离近的心理距离情境4下,农户的初始信任是基于近地理位置属性的零售店信任,直觉系统信息处理模式在心理距离情境和农户初始零售店信任之间发挥中介作用
Mathematical Expression Extraction in Text Fields of Documents Based on HMM  [PDF]
Xuedong Tian, Ruihan Bai, Fang Yang, Jinyuan Bai, Xinfu Li
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2017.514001
Abstract: Aiming at the problem that the mathematical expressions in unstructured text fields of documents are hard to be extracted automatically, rapidly and effectively, a method based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed. Firstly, this method trained the HMM model through employing the symbol combination features of mathematical expressions. Then, some preprocessing works such as removing labels and filtering words were carried out. Finally, the preprocessed text was converted into an observation sequence as the input of the HMM model to determine which is the mathematical expression and extracts it. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the mathematical expressions from the text fields of documents, and also has the relatively high accuracy rate and recall rate.
Primary Lymphoma of the Seminal Vesicles Presented with Acute Renal Failure: PET-CT Findings  [PDF]
Baoyi Zhu, Yi Cai, Ruihan Chen, Chunwei Ye, Yiran Tao, Xingqiao Wen
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.23024
Abstract: A 63-year-old male presented with lower abdominal pain and oliguria due to a large mass in the seminal vesicles. Positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) examination showed multiple lesions in the seminal Vesicles, parapharyngeal space, mediastinum and spermatic cord. The result of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy indicated a diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma of the seminal vesicles. PET-CT and TRUS guided biopsy were very helpful to make the correct diagnosis of this unique case.
Theoretical Insights into Catalytic Mechanism of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1
Ruihan Zhang, Xin Li, Zhongjie Liang, Kongkai Zhu, Junyan Lu, Xiangqian Kong, Sisheng Ouyang, Lin Li, Yujun George Zheng, Cheng Luo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072424
Abstract: Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), the major arginine asymmetric dimethylation enzyme in mammals, is emerging as a potential drug target for cancer and cardiovascular disease. Understanding the catalytic mechanism of PRMT1 will facilitate inhibitor design. However, detailed mechanisms of the methyl transfer process and substrate deprotonation of PRMT1 remain unclear. In this study, we present a theoretical study on PRMT1 catalyzed arginine dimethylation by employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculation. Ternary complex models, composed of PRMT1, peptide substrate, and S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet) as cofactor, were constructed and verified by 30-ns MD simulation. The snapshots selected from the MD trajectory were applied for the QM/MM calculation. The typical SN2-favored transition states of the first and second methyl transfers were identified from the potential energy profile. Deprotonation of substrate arginine occurs immediately after methyl transfer, and the carboxylate group of E144 acts as proton acceptor. Furthermore, natural bond orbital analysis and electrostatic potential calculation showed that E144 facilitates the charge redistribution during the reaction and reduces the energy barrier. In this study, we propose the detailed mechanism of PRMT1-catalyzed asymmetric dimethylation, which increases insight on the small-molecule effectors design, and enables further investigations into the physiological function of this family.
Different Patterns of Evolution in the Centromeric and Telomeric Regions of Group A and B Haplotypes of the Human Killer Cell Ig-Like Receptor Locus
Chul-Woo Pyo,Lisbeth A. Guethlein,Quyen Vu,Ruihan Wang,Laurent Abi-Rached,Paul J. Norman,Steven G. E. Marsh,Jeffrey S. Miller,Peter Parham,Daniel E. Geraghty
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015115
Abstract: The fast evolving human KIR gene family encodes variable lymphocyte receptors specific for polymorphic HLA class I determinants. Nucleotide sequences for 24 representative human KIR haplotypes were determined. With three previously defined haplotypes, this gave a set of 12 group A and 15 group B haplotypes for assessment of KIR variation. The seven gene-content haplotypes are all combinations of four centromeric and two telomeric motifs. 2DL5, 2DS5 and 2DS3 can be present in centromeric and telomeric locations. With one exception, haplotypes having identical gene content differed in their combinations of KIR alleles. Sequence diversity varied between haplotype groups and between centromeric and telomeric halves of the KIR locus. The most variable A haplotype genes are in the telomeric half, whereas the most variable genes characterizing B haplotypes are in the centromeric half. Of the highly polymorphic genes, only the 3DL3 framework gene exhibits a similar diversity when carried by A and B haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates, point to the centromeric gene-content motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes having emerged ~6 million years ago, contemporaneously with the separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors. In contrast, the telomeric motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes emerged more recently, ~1.7 million years ago, before the emergence of Homo sapiens. Thus the centromeric and telomeric motifs that typify A and B haplotypes have likely been present throughout human evolution. The results suggest the common ancestor of A and B haplotypes combined a B-like centromeric region with an A-like telomeric region.
The Model of Mobile Knowledge Services System in the Management of Complex Cluster Project  [PDF]
Yong Liu, Bingxin Liu
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.31006
Abstract: Cluster projects are projects of large-scale or with huge investment, such as Beijing 2008 Olympic Games and Shanghai 2010 Expo. A lot of on-site management works are involved in the process of cluster project management, especially the treatment of sudden accidents which would produce plenty of knowledge and experience. As cluster project on-site management spots change frequently, knowledge produced by mobile workers in the process of on-site management is hard to be saved into the knowledge repository on time. It may cause a knowledge distortion or even missing. On the other hand, in the process of cluster project management, a lot of knowledge is required by on-site workers to deal with on-site activities. However, due to lack of effective mechanisms for knowledge communion, they often face the risk of making wrong decisions. To solve the problems of knowledge management and acquisition in the process of cluster project on-site management, this paper presents a system model for mobile knowledge service.
The Collusion Deterrence with Prisoner’s Dilemma  [PDF]
Aidong Liu, Jinfang Liu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.34053
Abstract: I tried to present a new method to prevent collusion through employing two auditors at the same time and inspiring them provide true report by exploiting their prisoner’s dilemma. But I found this method cannot be put into practice because of the high cost. So I analyzed whether sending the second auditor in a probability, a low cost method, can deter the audit collusion. I find sending the second auditor in a probability, enforcing the rigidly lawful punishment and perfecting the reward mechanism can prevent audit collusion. I also find the auditor’s ethical constraint do good to prevent collusion and the charger of state assets management can play the same role as the real owner of the state-owned enterprise in deterring collusion. This finding provides theory support for the government to implement the publicly audit bidding and random double auditing system on state-owned enterprise. The supervision of PCAOB on auditors is also the operation of this theory.
Using Insulation in China’s Buildings: Potential for Significant Energy Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions  [PDF]
Guoliang Liu, Hans Liu
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.24027
Abstract: Most old residential and commercial buildings in China are not insulated or not to new standards. This is true even in regions with very cold winters or regions with very hot summers. The insulation in new buildings is very poor relative to North American standards. However, insulating the exterior walls, attic roofs, and foundation walls to new standards of buildings in China would reduce the need for heating and air conditioning, and thus would save roughly 200 million tons of coal each year. This in turn would lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions of about 510 million tons per year, which is equal to about 8.4% of China’s total carbon emissions in 2006. The use of insulation in buildings will help homeowners save money, help China save energy and help the environment all at the same time. Insulation will provide a continued payback to the homeowner, not only in dollars and cents, but also by providing a more enjoyable and comfortable living environment for many years.
An Elementary Introduction to Training the Postgraduates for Professional Degrees in Oil and Gas Engineering  [PDF]
Qingyou Liu, Zhibin Liu
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326126
Abstract: The demand of the talents in petroleum engineering of petroleum enterprises is analyzed in this paper according the current situation of the engineering education. The four levels of the professional talents needed by the petroleum enterprises are specified, which makes it clear that what the purpose and orientation of the higher education in petroleum engineering should be. The qualities of the petroleum engineers are discussed specifically and it is pointed out that the training of the postgraduate for professional degree in oil and gas engineering should be the cradle of the petroleum engineers. A training schedule is listed in this paper based on the discussion, including curriculum provision, practice link, thesis and training mode, which will be a pathfinder of the education of the professional degree graduate student in oil and gas engineering. Moreover, the practice can provide useful experience for the training and education of different type of graduates.
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