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Possibilidades de transmiss?o e vias de inocula??o da lepra murina em ratos e outros animais
Linhares, Herminio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1943, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761943000300003
Abstract: 1) the a. reviews the routes of natural transmission of rat leprosy and the experimentally induced disease. 2) the infection in the natural disease must be made by contact with an infected rat or through the gastro-intestinal route by eating infected tissue. 3) they were found acid-fast bacilli in lice (polyplax spinulosa) caught on rats dying of leprosy; but it was impossible to obtain cultures in l?wenstein medium, from these lice. 4) rat leprosy emulsion introduced into the stomach, may infect rats. five rats fed with infected material became infected. 5) after subcutaneous or intraperitoneal inoculation there were obtained infection in almost 100% of cases. 6) it was possible to infect didelphis aurita after inoculation of infected rat material. these animals most likely are more susceptible to rat leprosy than to human leprosy. 7) it was possible to infect chicks by inoculation in chest muscle, by intraperitoneal injection and by gastrointestinal route. 8) it was possible to infect pigeon by inoculation in chest muscle and by intravenous inoculation.
Suscetibilidade de camondongos ao virus amarílico administrado por vias extraneurais
Linhares, Herminio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1943, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761943000200010
Abstract: 1. french neurotropic, asibi and vaccine (17d) virus, infect young mice (21 days) when instilled in the nostrils, killing them with symptoms of encephalitis or developing immunity. 2. french neurotropic virus and asibi (and perhaps vaccine virus), when instilled in the ear of young mice, may infect them producing development of immunity. 3. after instilation in the scarified cornea of young mice, french neurotropic virus, asibi and perhaps vaccine virus, may produce infection. the cornea being, however, whole it has not been able to infect mice. 4. french neurotropic virus, asibi, vaccine, asib egg i and egg iii introduced into the stomach, may infect young mice, causing e fatal encephalitis or rendering them immune. 5. it is possible to infect mice 0-6 days old by simple deposition of virus or rubbing the suspension on the whole and scarified skin.
Verifica??o da lepra murina na cidade do Rio de Janeiro: sua distribui??o geográfica e considera??es endemiológicas
Linhares, Herminio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1942, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761942000300010
Abstract: 1 ? rat leprosy hás been found in the city of rio de janeiro. among 10.000 rats examined there were 37 that presented characteristic lesion of rat leprosy disease, out of which 32 were rattus norvegicus (86,5%), 3 rattus alexandrinus (8,1%) and 2 mus musculus (5,4%). 2 ? the disease was observed mostly in adult rats, i.e 94,6%; the rest being observed in young ones. 3 ? probably the sex has not influence upon the infection, but the a. has found 24 males and 13 females affected, a ratio of 1.8:1. 4 ? the glandular form of the disease was the most prevalent being observed in 25 rats, 9 rats showed the musculo-cutaneous form and 3 the mixed form. this one was noticed only in advanced cases of the infection.
Contribui??o ao estudo da patologia da lepra murina
Linhares, Herminio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1942, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761942000400003
Abstract: the a. reviewed the bibliography of pathology of murine leprosy. out of 41 rats expontaneously infected with murine leprosy 39% had alopecia, especially on the back; 78% had subcutaneous infiltrations; 13 of them presented tumour-like grows, sometimes large as 5 cm. of diameter; eight animals had ulcerations varying from 1 to 15 in number; 11 had skin nodules; two presented splenomegaly and two others small nodules upon the surface of the spleen; five had microabcesses on the liver; two had pneumonia and two others showed microcabcesses on their lungs. the other organs were macroscopically normals. histopathological studies were made with materials of natural and experimental rat leprosy disease. granulomata were seen on sections of their skins, lumph nodes, spleens, bone marrows, livers, lungs and kidneys. the testicles were rarely envolved. the granulomatous tissues are formed by mononuclear cells or by large plae cells resembling epithelioid celss, in which there were numerous bacilli. the infections process become localisated by long time in the lumph nodes. rat leprosy by its nature and probably origin of the affected cells suggest a primordially disease of the reticulo-endothelial system.
Transmiss?o de imunidade antiamarílica da m?e aos filhos, em camondongos
Linhares, Herminio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1943, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761943000200008
Abstract: 1. females rendered immune actively and passively against yellow fever virus may transmit protective antibodies to their young ones. 2. mice acquire immunity through the placenta and principally after birth by ingestion of milk of an immune female. 3. the virus can not be transmitted by either of the two ways. 4. the immunity transferred through the placenta disappears much more rapidly than immunity transmited by milk. 5. young ones from a normal female acquire immunity rapidly if fed by an immune female. 6. mice of more than 10 days absorb antibodies just as well as during the first days of their birth, and the milk carries with it protective substances during the whole suckling period.
Inocula??o de virus amarílico em gatos jovens
Linhares, Herminio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1943, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761943000200009
Abstract: 1. young cats inoculated intracerebrally with relatively large doses of neurotropic or viscerotropic virus, and intraperitoneally with visceropic virus fail to show circulating virus up to 12 days post-inoculation. 2. such cats also fail to show symptoms referable to the virus. it was impossible to isolate virus from the brains of inoculated cats dying in the course of the experiments, and histological examinations of the brains failed to show escephalitis (only one case with toxic encephalitis). 4. the development of serological immunity after 30 days was observed in all but two of the cats inoculated intracerebrally or intraperitoneally with neurotropic virus; with asibi strain, only two positive results were obtained, with the intracerebral route. 5. young cats are relatively unsusceptible to yellow fever virus, only giving the reaction of immunity.
Suscetibilidade de pintos ao virus amarílico neurotrópico
Linhares, Herminio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1943, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761943000200011
Abstract: 1. after 80 serial passages from brain to brain of chicks, neurotropic virus fails to show essential modifications in the behaviour of the virus in mice or chicks. 2. chicks are susceptible by intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intradermal route, showing high levels of circulating virus and become immunes when inoculated during the first days after birth. but, circulating virus varies, however, in inverse ratio to age. it does not seem possible to infect chicks by gastric route. 3. during first days virus may be found, occasionally in the lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys; some days afterwards, no chicks showed virus in other organs than brain, in which virus persists up to 10th day post-intraperitoneal inoculation and up to 15th day after the intracerebral inoculation, and perhaps till later. we have however, not been able to isolate the virus from excretions. 4. there does not seem to be any difference in susceptibillity to the yellow fever virus, on chicks with b avitaminosis. 5. detectable immune bodies appear by 10-11 day after intraperitoneal and intracerebral inoculation, at time, that many of some chicks still have virus in the brain. 6. age has a marked influence on the development of immunity, in chicks inoculated by intraperitoneal route. 7. the multiplication and circulation of virus after intradermal inoculation of 50 to 160 m.l.d., renders possible to suggest that infected mosquitoes can difuse the virus among chicks and, perhaps, to other birds, a few days old.
Universidade, Currículo e Diretrizes Curriculares no Curso de Direito
Milton Linhares,M?nica Tereza Mansur Linhares
Prisma Jurídico , 2009,
Abstract: Neste artigo, os autores tra am uma breve análise sobre a problemática do currículo e das diretrizes curriculares para o curso de Direito, bacharelado, instituídas pela Resolu o CNE/CES no 9, de 29 de setembro de 2004, do Conselho Nacional de Educa o. Com efeito, o currículo e as diretrizes curriculares para o ensino do Direito se revestem de importancia fundamental para a condu o das diretrizes do ensino jurídico no Brasil. Constituem-se numa preocupa o de toda a comunidade acadêmica, jurídica e profissional, e do Estado brasileiro – suas autoridades e sociedade –, que se responsabilizam pelas defini es e decis es curriculares no campo da normatiza o jurídico-educacional. O sentido desta análise é apresentar os aspectos educacionais, pedagógicos, éticos, jurídicos e, sobretudo, filosóficos do currículo jurídico e de suas diretrizes para o curso de Direito. Discute-se, ainda, o papel e a importancia da universidade na implanta o dos currículos no ensino do Direito, visando ao desenvolvimento e à proposi o de novos paradigmas curriculares para o curso de Direito.
Desenvolvimento rural sustentável no Brasil: perspectivas a partir da integra??o de a??es públicas e privadas com base na agroecologia
Assis, Renato Linhares de;
Economia Aplicada , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-80502006000100005
Abstract: this article aims to present an option for establishment of agroecological based sustainable rural development. initially, an analysis is made of the process of diffusion of agroecological production systems in brazil. afterwards, the concept of sustainable development and possibilities of its accomplishment in relation to the difficulties brought by global economy is discussed. following this, some questions are presented about public policy demands for the accomplishment of sustainable rural development, based at local action and related to agroecological production systems. some premises and general recommendations are also presented for the accomplishment of this process. it is concluded that the execution of the proposal ideas only will be possible with enduring and integrated action of the different levels of action by public authorities, associated with real involvement of the society in the building of solutions.
Representa??es do Brasil Moderno para ler, ver e ouvir no circuito dos Museus Commerciais europeus, 1906 a 1908
Borges, Maria Eliza Linhares;
História (S?o Paulo) , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-90742007000200006
Abstract: the article focuses the visual culture role in the construction of brazilian national identity during the first period of the republican age. it analyzes the publicity practices of brazilian elites aimed at replacing the image of a picturesque brazil, widespread within and outside the country since the xixth century, with a new image, more akin to the signs of a modern, cosmopolitan society. it emphasizes the production and circulation of symbolic goods issued by museu commercial of rio de janeiro and brazilian museu commercial in paris, in partnership with brazilian service of foreign propaganda and economic expansion, just before the 1908 national exhibition held to celebrate the centenary of the portuguese court’s arrival to brazil.
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