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Northern labyrinths are stone constructions of different shapes, dating back to III-I century BC. They mainly appear on capes on peninsulas and islands up to 13-25 metresabove the sea level. Their area begins from Scilly Isles (England) and in the White Sea (Russia). Opinions of scientists concerning their designation are controversial. Assumptions about their practical meaning haven’t been proved: no burials have been found underneath; fishing equipment cannot be located so far from the area of tides. Most of the scientists link labyrinths with the sphere of spiritual culture: sanctuaries, altars, sacred places, schemes of rituals and magical centers. Assumptions about calendar designation link the picture of labyrinth with schemes of orbits of the Sun, the Moon, planets and stars. However they do not explain the application of this technology. The author’s concept is based on the opposite astronomical alignment by the shade of gnomon and considers peculiarities of the geographical space of Northern regions (polar days and white nights). The aim of the research is to prove that the key to decoding the picture of a classic Northern labyrinth is a gnomon located in the centre of the construction. Field research has been conducted on Zayztskiy Island in Solovetskiy Archipelago. Experiments of imitation modeling have been done, analysis of linguistic and toponymic materials, archeological, astronomical, ethnographical and mythological and other sources has been implemented. The research has proved that observations of the shade can help to create a calendar in a shape of a bispiral labyrinth. The structure of labyrinth is convenient for defining the North, dividing daytime and defining geographical altitude of the observation point. Orientation in space and time has become the basis for navigation frame of the territory. A set of stone instruments is the key of a navigation frame of the territory. Life-essential stages of the yearly lighting are reflected in specific geometry shapes of shades. They have been preserved in mythological images of the Sun, solar symbols and modern sign systems. Languages, alphabets, numeric systems can be considered as models of geographical space and have evolved thanks to observations of the light movement. Key results of the
This study is aiming at controlling the
microstructure of plasma sprayed Al2O3-TiO2 composite coatings using freeze granulated powders. As sprayed and sintered Al2O3 + 3wt%TiO2 powders were air plasma
sprayed with industry process parameters and compared with a commercial powder.
The resulting coatings were investigated with respect to powder flowability,
porosity and microstructure of the granules. The results showed that
microstructure and melting fraction in the coatings could be tailored with the freeze granulation
process and heat treatment conditions.