Abstract:
A novel voltammetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) composite was developed. The nanocomposite modified electrode was characterized using atoms force microscope (AFM). The electrochemical behavior of meclofenoxate hydrochloride (MFX) was investigated on this sensor. The results indicated that the GNPs/SWNTs modified electrode exhibited efficient electrocatalytic oxidation for MFX with relatively high sensitivity, and stability. Using square wave voltammetry (SWV), the GNPs/SWNTs modified electrode exhibited a linear voltammetric response for MFX in the concentration range of 5.0 × 10^{–7} – 2.0 × 10^{–5}mol·L^{–1}, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 1.0 × 10^{–7} mol·L^{–1}. The sensor was applied to determine MFX in finished drug with a satisfactory result.

Abstract:
We explore the theoretical framework as well as the associated algorithms for the problem of optimally placing mobile observation platforms to maximise the improvement of estimation accuracy. The approach in this study is based on the concept of observability, which is a quantitative measure of the information provided by sensor data and user-knowledge. To find the optimal sensor locations, the observability is maximised using a gradient projection method. The Burgers equation is used to verify this approach. To prove the optimality of the sensor locations, Monte Carlo experimentations are carried out using standard 4D-Var algorithms based on two sets of data, one from equally spaced sensors and the other from the optimal sensor locations. The results show that, relative to equally spaced sensors, the 4D-Var data assimilation achieves significantly improved estimation accuracy if the sensors are placed at the optimal locations. A robustness study is also carried out in which the error covariance matrix is varied by 50% and the sensor noise covariance is varied by 100%. In addition, both Gaussian and uniform probability distributions are used for the sensor noise and initial estimation errors. In all cases, the optimal sensor locations result in significantly improved estimation accuracy.

Abstract:
Several concepts on the measure of observability, reachability, and robustness are defined and illustrated for both linear and nonlinear control systems. Defined by using computational dynamic optimization, these concepts are applicable to a wide spectrum of problems. Some questions addressed include the observability based on user-information, the determination of strong observability vs. weak observability, partial observability of complex systems, the computation of $L^2$-gain for nonlinear control systems, and the measure of reachability in the presence of state constraints. Examples on dynamic systems defined by both ordinary and partial differential equations are shown.

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of a hole curvature on the flow structure and characteristics downstream of JICF (jet in cross-Flow) by means of smoke visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiment was performed in a low speed wind tunnel with Reynolds numbers of about 480 and 1000, based on the hole diameter and main flow speed. Two geometries were tested: a circular hole with 90° curvature and a circular straight hole for comparison, under blowing ratios 0.5 and 1.0. The measurements were done in the symmetric plane and four cross-sections. The results show that the curved hole could decrease the mixing behavior of jet flow with the main flow as the hole leading edge also increases the chance of transportingthecoolant to the wall surface and the transverse coverage. The curved hole shows a high potential to increase the cooling effectiveness once it is applied to the turbine blades. 1. Introduction In order to raise the cycle efficiency, today’s gas turbine is heading towards high pressure ratio and high turbine inlet temperature. Consequently, thermal and mechanical loads of the turbine components exposed to the hot gas will be increased, leading to the necessity of applying efficient cooling techniques in order to guarantee the lifetimes. One of the often used cooling techniques is film cooling, in which coolant air extracted from the compressor is transferred into the cava of turbine blades and then ejected out through discrete holes or slots, arranged in a certain way, around the blades into the blade flow passage. The air forms a thin and low temperature film covering the blade and/or endwall surfaces for protecting them from the hot main flow. Since the extraction of air from the compressor incurs a penalty to the thermal efficiency and the ejection of coolant air into the blade passage and its mixing with the hot gas as well, introduce additional energy losses, it is therefore necessary to get more insight into the local flow field and then find a way to optimize the cooling hole design. The essential features of such film-cooling flow are present in a more generic flow situation of JICF. Extensive investigations on this fundamental flow field by experimental and numerical methods have been done for many years [1–7]. Margason [8] and many others had given a detailed summary on the earlier studies. A detailed review on the recent progress in the study of JICF can be found from Karagozian [9]. Interaction of the jet flow with the main cross-flow creates a localized, very complex large-scale vortex

Abstract:
We fit the (quasi-)simultaneous multi-waveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) blazars with a one-zone leptonic model. The seed photons that predominantly come from broad line region (BLR) and infrared (IR) molecular torus are considered respectively in external Compton process. We find that the modeling with IR seed photons is systematically better than that with BLR photons based on a $\chi^2$ test, which suggest that $\gamma$-ray emitting region most possibly stay outside the BLR. The minimum electron Lorentz factor, $\gamma_{\rm min}$, is constrained from the modeling for these LSP blazars with good soft X-ray data (ranges from 5 to 160 with a median value of 55), which plays a key role in jet power estimation. Assuming one-to-one ratio of proton and electron, we find that the jet power for LSP blazars is systematically higher than that of FR II radio galaxies at given 151 MHz radio luminosity, $L_{\rm 151MHz}$, even though FR IIs are regarded as same as LSP blazars in unification scheme except the jet viewing angle. The possible reason is that there are some $e^{\pm}$ pairs in the jet of these blazars. If this is the case, we find the number density of $e^{\pm}$ pairs should be several times higher than that of $e^{-}-p$ pairs by assuming the jet power is the same for LSP blazars and FR IIs at given $L_{\rm 151MHz}$.

Abstract:
In this paper, we classify three-locally-symmetric spaces for a connected, compact and simple Lie group. Furthermore, we give the classification of invariant Einstein metrics on these spaces.

Abstract:
In this paper, a quantitative measure of partial observability is defined for PDEs. The quantity is proved to be consistent if the PDE is approximated using well-posed approximation schemes. A first order approximation of an unobservability index using an empirical Gramian is introduced. Several examples are presented to illustrate the concept of partial observability, including Burgers' equation and a one-dimensional nonlinear shallow water equation.

Abstract:
The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) mating assay is a powerful method for detecting protein-protein interactions. Firstly, the gene of interest is cloned into specific Y2H vectors. Although multiple innovations in cloning methods were made in the past two decades, the conventional cloning method of restriction-enzyme (RE) digestion followed by ligation is still widely used. Unfortunately, many researchers, especially new-comers, often encounter difficulties in cloning a gene into a desired vector. Secondly, interaction between two proteins is commonly detected by growth of the diploids in specific media. This step takes about two weeks. Here, we describe improved cloning and detection procedures for the Y2H assay that accelerate the research progress. The changes in procedures involve running an agarose gel after the doubly digested vector and insert are ligated in the cloning step to determine the efficiency of RE digestion and ligation, and performing an additional replica-plating on plates for earlier assessment of interaction in the detection step. We show an example of Y2H interaction between Trs23 and Trs120 (respective subunits of TRAPP I and TRAPP II), as a proof of concept. By following the improved methods described here, the chances of successful cloning increased and the time for the whole Y2H experimental process is significantly shorter.

This paper presents a corner-based
image alignment algorithm based on the procedures of corner-based template
matching and geometric parameter estimation. This algorithm consists of two
stages: 1) training phase, and 2) matching phase. In the training phase, a
corner detection algorithm is used to extract the corners. These corners are
then used to build the pyramid images. In the matching phase, the corners are
obtained using the same corner detection algorithm. The similarity measure is
then determined by the differences of gradient vector between the corners
obtained in the template image and the inspection image, respectively. A
parabolic function is further applied to evaluate the geometric relationship between
the template and the inspection images. Results show that the corner-based
template matching outperforms the original edge-based template matching in
efficiency, and both of them are robust against non-liner light changes. The
accuracy and precision of the corner-based image alignment are competitive to
that of edge-based image alignment under the same environment. In practice, the
proposed algorithm demonstrates its precision, efficiency and robustness in
image alignment for real world applications.