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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208514 matches for " L. Winslow "
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Simulation of Reactors for Antineutrino Experiments Using DRAGON
L. Winslow
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: From the discovery of the neutrino to the precision neutrino oscillation measurements in KamLAND, nuclear reactors have proven to be an important source of antineutrinos. As their power and our knowledge of neutrino physics has increased, more sensitive measurements have become possible. The next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments require more detailed simulations of the reactor core. Many of the reactor simulation codes are proprietary which makes detailed studies difficult. Here we present the results of the open source DRAGON code and compare it to other industry standards for reactor modeling. We use published data from the Takahama reactor to determine the quality of the simulations. The propagation of the uncertainty to the antineutrino flux is also discussed.
Grand Challenges in Computational Physiology and Medicine
Raimond L. Winslow
Frontiers in Physiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00079
Systems biology approaches to understanding the cause and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders
Raimond L. Winslow
Frontiers in Physiology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00107
Large-scale integration of cancer microarray data identifies a robust common cancer signature
Lei Xu, Donald Geman, Raimond L Winslow
BMC Bioinformatics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-275
Abstract: In this study, we collect and integrate ~ 1500 microarray gene expression profiles from 26 published cancer data sets across 21 major human cancer types. We then apply a statistical method, referred to as the Top-Scoring Pair of Groups (TSPG) classifier, and a repeated random sampling strategy to the integrated training data sets and identify a common cancer signature consisting of 46 genes. These 46 genes are naturally divided into two distinct groups; those in one group are typically expressed less than those in the other group for cancer tissues. Given a new expression profile, the classifier discriminates cancer from normal tissues by ranking the expression values of the 46 genes in the cancer signature and comparing the average ranks of the two groups. This signature is then validated by applying this decision rule to independent test data.By combining the TSPG method and repeated random sampling, a robust common cancer signature has been identified from large-scale microarray data integration. Upon further validation, this signature may be useful as a robust and objective diagnostic test for cancer.During the past century, the presence of cancer in tissues has been diagnosed on the basis of histopathology [1]. The major limitation of this approach is that it cannot achieve high accuracy of prediction in clinical practice. Therefore, there has been a persistent need to identify robust cancer signatures which could complement conventional histopathologic evaluation to increase the accuracy of cancer detection [2]. More recently, DNA microarrays have been developed as a means to simultaneously measure the transcript abundance (gene expression level) of mRNA for thousands of genes. This technology provides a potentially powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures capable of accurately detecting the presence of cancer.Many studies have used DNA microarrays to identify cancer type-specific gene expression signatures which can discriminate certain types of can
Hidden Mobile Guards in Simple Polygons
Sarah Cannon,Diane L. Souvaine,Andrew Winslow
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We consider guarding classes of simple polygons using mobile guards (polygon edges and diagonals) under the constraint that no two guards may see each other. In contrast to most other art gallery problems, existence is the primary question: does a specific type of polygon admit some guard set? Types include simple polygons and the subclasses of orthogonal, monotone, and starshaped polygons. Additionally, guards may either exclude or include the endpoints (so-called open and closed guards). We provide a nearly complete set of answers to existence questions of open and closed edge, diagonal, and mobile guards in simple, orthogonal, monotone, and starshaped polygons, with some surprising results. For instance, every monotone or starshaped polygon can be guarded using hidden open mobile (edge or diagonal) guards, but not necessarily with hidden open edge or hidden open diagonal guards.
Examination of the Impact of Condensed Biofeedback Training on Acute Stress Responses  [PDF]
Meredith Carroll, Brent Winslow
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.77021
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the effects of a condensed 90 minute Biofeedback Training (BFT) method on stress response and decision making performance under stress. Forty one novice male participants received either BFT training, which incorporated diaphragmatic breathing with Stress Inoculation Training (SIT), or a control training task. Participants completed pre- and post-training assessments which incorporated a socio evaluative stress induction method followed immediately by performance of a simulation-based decision making under stress scenario. Stress was assessed using real-time physiological measures of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) response and cortisol measures of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis stress response. Perceived stress was measured using the state portion of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and decision making performance was assessed during scenario performance. Results showed that participants in the BFT condition experienced a significant reduction in cortisol from pre-training to post-training, while the control group did not. However, BFT participants did not experience statistically significant reductions in ANS stress response or in perceived stress compared to the control group. Participants in the biofeedback group experienced greater improvements in performance from pre-training to post-training compared to the control group; however, these results only approached statistical significance (p = 0.09). These results suggest that the condensed BFT method has the potential to impart the knowledge and skills necessary to implement the biofeedback-based coping mechanisms; however, it may require additional practice time to allow the technique to be utilized more effectively.
A Study of the Fluorescence Response of Tetraphenyl-butadiene
R. Jerry,L. Winslow,L. Bugel,J. M. Conrad
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a widely used fluorescent wavelength-shifter. A common application is in liquid-argon-based particle detectors, where scintillation light is produced in the UV at 128 nm. In liquid argon experiments, TPB is often employed to shift the scintillation light to the visible range in order to allow detection via standard photomultiplier tubes. This paper presents studies on the stability of TPB with time under exposure to light. We also examine batch-to-batch variations. We compare scintillation-grade TPB to 99% pure TPB response. In the 99% pure samples, we report a yellowing effect, and full degradation of the TPB emission-peak, upon extended exposure to light.
Merging microarray data from separate breast cancer studies provides a robust prognostic test
Lei Xu, Aik Tan, Raimond L Winslow, Donald Geman
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-125
Abstract: In this study, by using a highly stable data aggregation procedure based on expression comparisons, we have integrated three independent microarray gene expression data sets for breast cancer and identified a structured prognostic signature consisting of 112 genes organized into 80 pair-wise expression comparisons. A classical likelihood ratio test based on these comparisons, essentially weighted voting, achieves 88.6% sensitivity and 54.6% specificity in an independent external test set of 154 samples. The test is highly informative in assessing the risk of developing distant metastases within five years (hazard ratio 9.3 with 95% CI 2.9–29.9).Rank-based features provide a stable way to integrate patient data from separate microarray studies due to invariance to data normalization, and such features can be combined into a useful predictor of distant metastases in breast cancer within a statistical modeling framework which begins to capture gene-gene interactions. Upon further confirmation on large-scale independent data, such prognostic signatures and tests could provide a powerful tool to guide adjuvant systemic treatment that could greatly reduce the cost of breast cancer treatment, both in terms of toxic side effects and health care expenditures.Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States, with an estimated ~213,000 new cases and ~41,000 deaths in 2006 [1]. The main cause of breast cancer death comes from its metastases to distant sites. Early diagnosis and adjuvant systemic therapy (hormone therapy and chemotherapy) substantially reduce the risk of distant metastases. However, adjuvant therapy has serious short- and long-term side effects and involves high medical costs [2]. Therefore, highly accurate prognostic tests are essential to aid clinicians in deciding which patients are at high risk of developing metastases and should receive adjuvant therapy. Currently, the most widely
Optical Properties of Quantum-Dot-Doped Liquid Scintillators
C. Aberle,J. J. Li,S. Weiss,L. Winslow
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/8/10/P10015
Abstract: Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO.
Next-Generation Liquid-Scintillator-Based Detectors: Quantums Dots and Picosecond Timing
Lindley Winslow
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Liquid-scintillator-based detectors are a robust technology that scales well to large volumes. For this reason, they are attractive for experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. A combination of improved photo-detection technology and novel liquid scintillators may allow for the extraction of particle direction in addition to the total energy of the particle. Such an advance would find applications beyond searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay.
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