Abstract:
Two practical spin-offs from the development of cryogenic dark matter detectors are presented. One in materials research, the other in biology.

Abstract:
We indicate some of the lessons learned from our work on coherence and decoherence in various fields and mention some recent work with sold state devices as elements of the ``quantum computer'', including the realization of simple logic gates controlled by adiabatic processes. We correct a commonly held misconception concerning decoherence for a free particle.

Abstract:
We discuss the notion of quantum mechanical coherence in its connection with time evolution and stationarity. The transition from coherence to decoherence is examined in terms of an equation for the time dependence of the density matrix. It is explained how the decoherence rate parameter arising in this description is related to the ``unitarity defect'' in interactions with the environment as well as the growth in entropy of the system. Applications to the ``Zeno-Watched Pot Effect'' and gravitational interactions are given. Finally, some recent results on applications to macroscopic coherence with the rf SQUID, where the transition from quantum to classical behavior could be studied experimentally, are shown.

Abstract:
Diffractive scattering of "fast" or "high energy" neutrons, can give low energy nuclear recoils in the signal region for dark matter searches. We present a discussion using the 'black disc' model. This permits a simple and general, although approximate, description of this possible background. We note a number of its features. In particular there are mass number A dependent aspects which can be studied in setups where events on different nuclei are observable at the same time. These include the recoil energy distributions, and the A behavior of the cross section. We define a parameter $E^o_R$ which characterizes the recoil energy to be expected due to fast neutrons. It ranges from 100 keV on light nuclei to a few keV on heavy nuclei, and a general treatment is possible in terms of it, within the 'black disc' approximation. In addition, the presence of inelastic processes would be characteristic of fast neutrons.

Abstract:
We consider the behavior of the photon number integral under inversion, concentrating on euclidean space. The discussion may be framed in terms of an additive differential $I$ which arises under inversions. The quantity $\int \int I$ is an interesting integral invariant whose value characterizes different configurations under inversion.

Abstract:
The description of a measuring process, such as that which occurs when a quantum point contact (QPC) detector is influenced by a nearby external electron which can take up two possible positions, provides a interesting application of the method of quantum damping. We find a number of new effects, due to the complete treatment of phases afforded by the formalism, although our results are generally similiar to those of other treatments, particularly to those of Buks et al. These are effects depending on the phase shift in the detector, effects which depend on the direction of the measuring current, and in addition to damping or dissipative effects, an energy shift of the measured system. In particular, the phase shift effect leads to the conclusion that there can be effects of "observation" even when the two barriers in question pass the same current. The nature of the current through the barriers and its statistics is discussed, giving a description of correlations in the current due to "measurement" and of the origin of "telegraphic" signals.

Abstract:
We point out that many wavepacket discussions for the coherence properties of particle beams are unnecessary since they deal with stationary sources; and when the problem is stationary, essentially all information is in the energy spectrum. This recognition allows a simple answer to a number of long-debated points, usually framed in terms of "the length of the wavepacket". In particular we discuss neutrino oscillations, and some issues in neutron physics. The question as to whether two simple beams with the same energy spectrum are distinguishable is answered negatively for stationary situations. The question as to whether neutrino oscillations should be thought of as taking place between states of the same energy or the same momentum is answered in favor of energy for stationary situations. Consequences for proposals involving the 7Be neutrino line of the sun, the observation of oscillations in supernova neutrinos and wavepacket studies with neutrons are briefly discussed, as well as the connection with the coherence notions of quantum optics.

Abstract:
A simulation of decoherence as random noise in the Hamiltonian is studied. The full Hamiltonian for the rf Squid is used, with the parameters chosen such that there is a double-potential well configuration where the two quasi-degenerate lowest levels are well separated from the rest. The results for these first two levels are in quantitative agreement with expectations from the ``spin 1/2'' picture for the behavior of a two-state system.

Abstract:
We discuss fluctuations in the measurement process and how these fluctuations are related to the dissipational parameter characterising quantum damping or decoherence. On the example of the measuring current of the variable-barrier or QPC problem we show there is an extra noise or fluctuation connected with the possible different outcomes of a measurement. This noise has an enhanced short time component which could be interpreted as due to ``telegraph noise'' or ``wavefunction collapses''. Furthermore the parameter giving the the strength of this noise is related to the parameter giving the rate of damping or decoherence.

Abstract:
Under certain conditions the number of photons radiated classically by a charged particle following a prescribed trajectory can be finite. An interesting formula for this number is presented and discussed.