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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 388389 matches for " L. R.; "
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Estimate of an Hypoelliptic Heat-Kernel outside the Cut-Locus in Semi-Group Theory  [PDF]
Rémi Léandre
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312A285

We give a proof in semi-group theory based on the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type in semi-group theory and Wentzel-Freidlin estimates in semi-group of our result giving an expansion of an hypoelliptic heat-kernel outside the cut-locus where Bismut’s non-degeneray condition plays a preominent role.

Glomalin Production and Infectivity of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi in Response to Grassland Plant Diversity  [PDF]
R. L. Burrows
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51013

Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are integral components of most terrestrial ecosystems, with complex interactions between plants and AMF. Our study assessed the impact of plant diversity of native grassland species on AMF infectivity and production of glomalin, an AMF hyphal glycoprotein that may play an important role in soil aggregation. The study was conducted over a 3-year period in field plots planted with 1, 2, 8, or 16 plant species. The mycorrhizal infection potential (MIP) of the plots was assayed in the greenhouse. Glomalin production and MIP were lowest in monocultures and were more closely correlated with plant diversity than with plant cover. Spore density was also greater in higher diversity plots. Lower AMF activity in monoculture plots may contribute to lower productivity and soil quality in plant monocultures. Immunoreactive glomalin levels varied seasonally, with higher levels in late summer than in late spring. Positive correlations were found between glomalin levels and spore density, and between MIP and spore density, but not between MIP and glomalin.

The Use of New Chemically Modified Cellulose for Heavy Metal Ion Adsorption and Antimicrobial Activities  [PDF]
R. Saravanan, L. Ravikumar
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.76042
Abstract: A novel chemically modified cellulose (DTD) adsorbent bearing pendent methyl benzalaniline chelating group was synthesized. This new adsorbent was used for the removal of Cu2+ and Pb2+ heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbent were determined using FT-IR, 13C CP-MAS NMR, SEM, EDX and TGA analysis. The adsorption parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were optimized. Adsorption kinetic parameters were fitted into pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherms such as Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms have been investigated. Thermodynamic parameters have also been evaluated. The negative values of G0 and H0 reveal that the adsorption system is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The modified cellulose was challenged with microorganisms as a function of contact time. The biocidal results showed that the chemically modified cellulose has bactericidal effect against the bacterial species.
Achieving Effective Power System Observability in Optimal PMUs Placement Using GA-EHBSA  [PDF]
L. Parimalam, R. Rajeswari
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78174
Abstract: Normally, the power system observation is carried out for the optimal PMUs placement with minimum use of unit in the region of the Smart power grid system. By advanced tool, the process of protection and management of the power system is considered with the measurement of time-synchronized of the voltage and current. In order to have an efficient placement solution for the issue, a novel method is needed with the optimal approach. For complete power network observability of PMU optimal placement a new method is implemented. However, the process of placement and connection of the buses is considered at various places with the same cost of installation. GA based Enhanced Harmony and Binary Search Algorithm (GA-EHBSA) is proposed and utilized with the improvement to have least PMU placement and better optimization approach for finding the optimal location. To evaluate the optimal placement of PMUs the proposed approach is implemented in the standard test systems of IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus, IEEE 39-bus and IEEE 57-bus. The simulation results are evaluated and compared with existing algorithm to show the efficient process of optimal PMUs placement with better optimization, minimum cost and redundancy than the existing.
Unsupervised Neural Network Approach to Frame Analysis of Conventional Buildings  [PDF]
Lácides R. Pinto, Alejandro R. Zambrano
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.77022

In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is used for the analysis of any type of conventional building frame under an arbitrary loading in terms of the rotational end moments of its members. This is achieved by training the network. The frame will deform so that all joints will rotate an angle. At the same time, a relative lateral sway will be produced at the rth floor level, assuming that the effects of axial lengths of the bars of the structure are not altered. The issue of choosing an appropriate neural network structure and providing structural parameters to that network for training purposes is addressed by using an unsupervised algorithm. The model’s parameters, as well as the rotational variables, are investigated in order to get the most accurate results. The model is then evaluated by using the iteration method of frame analysis developed by Dr. G. Kani. In general, the new approach delivers better results compared to several commonly used methods of structural analysis.

Effects of Business to Business Relations on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Context of a Developing Country  [PDF]
l?en Akman, Bahad?r Y?rür
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2012.24028
Abstract: In the supply chain context, effective business to business (b2b) relationships are of core importance for companies to enhance their own ability to be more competitive in the marketplace, to create competitive advantage and to achieve mutual goals. Therefore, the focus of this research is customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and affecting factors of satisfaction and loyalty in manufacturer/supplier relations in the b2b context. This paper defines dimensions of b2b relationships between manufacturers and their suppliers, and then proposes effects of these dimensions on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Study is performed in the metal industry in a developing country, Turkey. Collected data is analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Methodology, and finally results are presented and discussed.
The Effect of Weak Gravitational Lensing on the Angular Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts
L. L. R. Williams
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/178082
Abstract: If Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are cosmologically distributed standard candles and are associated with the luminous galaxies, then the observed angular distribution of all GRBs is altered due to weak gravitational lensing of bursts by density inhomogeneities. The amplitude of the effect is generally small. For example, if the current catalogs extend to $z_{max}\sim 1$ and we live in a flat $\Omega=1$ Universe, the angular auto-correlation function of GRBs will be enhanced by $\sim 8\%$ due to lensing, on all angular scales. For an extreme case of $z_{max}= 1.5$ and ($\Omega$, $\Lambda$)=(0.2, 0.8), an enhancement of $\sim 33\%$ is predicted. If the observed distribution of GRBs is used in the future to derive power spectra of mass density fluctuations on large angular scales, the effect of weak lensing should probably be taken into account.
Evaluation of 64Cu-DOTA- and 64Cu-CBTE2A-Galectin-3 Peptide as a PET Radiotracer for breast Carcinoma  [PDF]
Senthil R. Kumar, Susan L. Deutscher
Advances in Molecular Imaging (AMI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ami.2011.11001
Abstract: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactosidase binding protein that modulates various cellular processes including cell adhesion, and metastasis. We evaluated the tumor targeting and imaging properties of a galectin-3 binding peptide originally selected from bacteriophage display, in a mouse model of human breast carcinoma expressing galectin-3. A galectin-3 binding peptide, ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR, was synthesized with a Gly-Ser-Gly (GSG) spacer and 1,4,7,10, tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetracetic acid (DOTA) or 4,11-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,8,11 tetrazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane 4,11-diacetic acid (CB-TE2A), and radiolabeled with 64Cu. The synthesized peptides 64Cu-DO3A-(GSG)-ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR (64Cu-DO3A- pep) and 64Cu-CB-TE2A-(GSG)-ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR(64Cu-CB-TE2A-pep) demonstrated an IC50 value of 97 ± 6.7 nM and 130 ± 10.2 nM, respectively, to cultured MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells in vitro in a competitive displacement binding study. The tumor tissue uptake in SCID mice bearing MDA-MB-435 tumors was 1.2 ± 0.18 %ID/g (64Cu-DO3A-pep) and 0.85 ± 0.0.9 %ID/g (64Cu-CB-TE2A-pep) at 30 min, respectively. While liver retention was moderate with both radiolabeled peptides the kidney retention was observed to be high. Radiation dose delivered to the tumor was estimated to be 42 mGy/mCi and 129 mGy/ mCi with CB-TE2A and DO3A peptides, respectively. Imaging studies demonstrated tumor uptake with both 64Cu-DO3A- and 64Cu-CB-TE2A-(GSG)-ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR after 2 h post injection. These studies suggest that gal-3 binding peptide could be developed into a PET imaging agent for galectin-3-expressing breast tumors.
Peer Influence of Non-Industrial Private Forest Owners in the Western Upper Peninsula of Michigan  [PDF]
Jillian R. Schubert, Audrey L. Mayer
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23018
Abstract: Understanding how non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners gain and share information regarding the management of their property is very important to policy makers, yet our knowledge regarding how and to what degree this information flows over privately owned landscapes is limited. The work described here seeks to address this shortfall. Widely administered surveys with close-ended questions may not adequately capture this information flow within NIPF owner communities. This study used open-ended questions in interviews of clusters of NIPF owners to determine whether and to what extent owners in-fluence each other directly (through conversations or referrals to sources of advice) or indirectly (through observation of management). We obtained data from thirty-four telephone interviews with owners of NIPF properties in the Western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and analyzed the data using open coding. Roughly half of the forest owners we interviewed were influenced either directly or indirectly by other members of their NIPF communities. Reasons for owning forests (such as privacy, hunting and nature recreation, and economics) also influenced owners’ management behaviors and goals. This peer-to-peer flow of information (whether direct or indirect) has significant implications for how to distribute management and programmatic information throughout NIPF owner communities, and how amenable these communities may be to cooperative or cross-boundary programs to achieve ecosystem and landscapescale goals.
Effect of a Single Shot Sciatic Nerve Block Combined with a Continuous Femoral Block on Pain Scores After Knee Arthroplasty. A Randomized Controlled Trial  [PDF]
R Carvalho, L Calixto, JP Bragan?a
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2012.24025
Abstract: Background and Purpose: Postoperative pain after knee arthroplasty (TKA) is reported as severe in up to 60% of patients. Continuous femoral nerve blocks (CFNB) are a choice for major knee repair, but controversies remain about the need of supplemental sciatic nerve blocks (SNB) for better analgesia. Our aim is to assess the effect of the association of a SNB to a CFNB to reduce postoperative pain after TKA. Methods: A prospective randomized, single blinded, controlled study, on 50 patients undergoing TKA. Control group received a CFNB before general anesthesia; in the intervention group a single shot SNB was added after the CFNB was done. After the end of surgery all patients started a continuous local anesthetic infusion through the femoral catheter in the PACU (post-anesthesia care unit). Pain scores were measured in the PACU and at 12 h and 24 h postoperative using a visual analog scale (VAS). Results: VAS pain scores (mm) were lower and statistically significant for the intervention group up to 12 h postoperative: PACU admission mean VAS = 59.4 vs 30.2, P = 0.001; at 12 h mean VASr = 26.1 vs 9.2, P = 0.006; at 24 h mean VASr = 30.1 vs 32.7, P = 0.723. Conclusions: The association of a single shot SNB with a CFNB significantly reduces postoperative pain scores after TKA up to 12 h. At 24 h there are no differences between groups.
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