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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208443 matches for " L. Muchemi "
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ANN Model to Predict Stock Prices at Stock Exchange Markets
B. W. Wanjawa,L. Muchemi
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Stock exchanges are considered major players in financial sectors of many countries. Most Stockbrokers, who execute stock trade, use technical, fundamental or time series analysis in trying to predict stock prices, so as to advise clients. However, these strategies do not usually guarantee good returns because they guide on trends and not the most likely price. It is therefore necessary to explore improved methods of prediction. The research proposes the use of Artificial Neural Network that is feedforward multi-layer perceptron with error backpropagation and develops a model of configuration 5:21:21:1 with 80% training data in 130,000 cycles. The research develops a prototype and tests it on 2008-2012 data from stock markets e.g. Nairobi Securities Exchange and New York Stock Exchange, where prediction results show MAPE of between 0.71% and 2.77%. Validation done with Encog and Neuroph realized comparable results. The model is thus capable of prediction on typical stock markets.
A Knowledge-based System for Selection of Trees for Urban Environments
J.O. Gwendo,L. Muchemi
Journal of Artificial Intelligence , 2012,
Abstract: Urban forestry is key in mitigating the environmental effects of urbanization however urban environments presents arboricultural challenges such as limited root and canopy space, poor soil quality, deficiency among others. This study presents findings of investigation into challenges caused by planting of inappropriate tree species and proposes a knowledge-based model. The model is validated through experiments based on a prototype that assists in the selection of the appropriate tree species for the diverse urban environments. Through the research it was evident that a better understanding of how urban ecosystems functions, how to take care of trees, where to strategically plant them and how to maintain them is the only way to maximize potential benefits of urban trees. The prototype was evaluated through selected test cases and the results were fairly accurate and promising when compared with the results of domain experts. Such a system would assist Governments, city-planners and conservationists to plan in advance for urbanizations threats to nature and thus shape the growth of cities through incorporation of successful urban forests initiatives.
Knowledge, attitude and practices related to diabetes among community members in four provinces in Kenya: a cross-sectional study
WK Maina, ZM Ndegwa, EW Njenga, EW Muchemi
Pan African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Background: This cross-sectional study sought to establish the level of knowledge of diabetes among community members in rural and urban setups in Kenya and determine how this impacts on their attitude and practices towards diabetes. Methods: A face-to-face interview was done for selected respondents using a structured questionnaire for data collection. Results: 1982 respondents, 1151 (58.1%) female and 831 (41.9%) males aged between 13 and 65 years were interviewed. 539 (27.2%) of all the respondents had good knowledge of diabetes; of these 52% had tertiary education; 25% had secondary education while 14% and 9% had primary and no education, respectively. Only 971(49%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards diabetes while 813 (41%) demonstrated good practices towards diabetes. Conclusion: This study indicates that the level of knowledge of diabetes in all regions in the country is very poor. It also indicates very poor attitudes and practices of the community towards diabetes. A comprehensive nationwide diabetes education programme is necessary to improve this situation.
Community Monitoring of Forest Carbon Stocks and Safeguards Tracking in Kenya: Design and Implementation Considerations  [PDF]
Julius G. Muchemi, Michael K. McCall, Francis N. Wegulo, James M. Kinyanjui, Alfred N. Gichu, Elias K. Ucakuwun, Gilbert M. Nduru
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.54040
Abstract: This paper investigates modalities required to design and implement community monitoring of forest carbon stock changes and safeguards implementation in Kenya. General principles and elements were drawn from the UNFCCC REDD+ policy frameworks for developing modalities and procedures for designing community forest monitoring system. The paper utilised policy analysis approach used to derive monitoring goals and objectives by assessing the compatibility of Kenya’s policy and legislative framework with monitoring elements provided in the UNFCCC REDD+ policy mechanism. The elements included monitoring goals, objectives, questions, indicators, and methods and tools. Two goals were identified which included, reduction of forest carbon emissions (ER) and monitoring of multiple social and environmental safeguards (SG). Five ER related objectives were identified to include: forest reference emission levels or forest reference levels, drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, Land use activities, eligible ER actions and estimation of forest emissions. Six objectives guiding SG were identified to include: policy, governance, human rights, socio-economic, biodiversity and environmental concerns. Corresponding questions to the goals and objectives were systematically designed. In turns, indicators, depicting quantitative and qualitative measurements, which best provided answers to questions were identified. The various methods and tools used by communities around the world in providing data and information required to satisfy the indictors were identified through literature review. The review identified four methods and tools that included: Remote Sensing and GIS, GPS survey, smartphone survey and Ground trothing. Smartphone and cloud-based server technology were found to be the recent emergent tools in aiding community monitoring of REDD+ projects. The paper argues that local communities and indigenous peoples have the capability and capacity to monitor and undertake forest carbon monitoring and tracking of implementation of safeguards if supported with relevant training; compensated for the time, labour and knowledge they contribute to the process; provided with feedback and involved decision making process.
Knowledge of Mange among Masai Pastoralists in Kenya
Francis Gakuya, Jackson Ombui, Jorg Heukelbach, Ndichu Maingi, Gerald Muchemi, William Ogara, Domnic Mijele, Samer Alasaad
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043342
Abstract: Background Pastoralists in low-income countries usually live in close proximity to their animals and thus represent an important repository of information about livestock disease. Since wild and domestic animals often mix freely whilst grazing, pastoralists are also able to observe first-hand the diseases that are present in wildlife and as such are key informants in disease outbreaks in sylvatic animals. We report here the findings of the first study of the knowledge and role of Masai pastoralists in mange in wildlife and livestock in Masai Mara, Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper we describe the knowledge of mange accrued by 56 Masai pastoralists in Kenya and how they respond to it in both wildlife and livestock. In total, 52 (93%) pastoralists had a clear idea of the clinical appearance of mange, 13 (23%) understood its aetiology and 37 (66%) knew that mites were the causal agent. Thirty-nine (69%) believed that mange cross-infection between domestic and wild animals occurs, while 48 (85%) had observed mange in domestic animals including sheep (77%), goats (57%), dogs (24%) and cattle (14%). The pastoralists had also observed wild animals infected with mange, above all lions (19%), gazelles (14%), cheetahs (12%) and wildebeests (2%). In 68% of cases Masai pastoralists treat mange infection or apply control measures, most commonly via the topical use of acaricides (29%) and/or the reporting of the outbreak to the veterinary authorities (21%). In the period 2007–2011, Kenya Wildlife Service received 24 warnings of 59 wild animals with mange-like lesions from the Masai Mara pastoralist community. The reported species were cheetah, lion, wild dog, Thomson’s gazelle and wildebeest. Conclusion Masai pastoralists have good knowledge of mange epidemiology and treatment. Their observations and the treatments they apply are valuable in the control of this disease in both wild and domestic animals.
Knowledge, attitude and practices related to diabetes among community members in four provinces in Kenya: a cross-sectional study
William Kiberenge Maina,Zachary Muriuki Ndegwa,Eva Wangechi Njenga,Eva Wangui Muchemi
Pan African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study sought to establish the level of knowledge of diabetes among community members in rural and urban setups in Kenya and determine how this impacts on their attitude and practices towards diabetes. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was done for selected respondents using a structured questionnaire for data collection. RESULTS: 1982 respondents, 1151 (58.1%) female and 831 (41.9%) males aged between 13 and 65 years were interviewed. 539 (27.2%) of all the respondents had good knowledge of diabetes; of these 52% had tertiary education; 25% had secondary education while 14% and 9% had primary and no education, respectively. Only 971(49%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards diabetes while 813 (41%) demonstrated good practices towards diabetes. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the level of knowledge of diabetes in all regions in the country is very poor. It also indicates very poor attitudes and practices of the community towards diabetes. A comprehensive nationwide diabetes education programme is necessary to improve this situation.
Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in the Somali Eco-System in Kenya
E.C. Chepkwony,C.G Gitao,G.M. Muchemi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in the arid and semi-arid areas where the pastoral mode of livestock rearing is pre-dominant in Kenya especially in the Somali Eco-system. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted in the Somali Ecosystem (SES) in Kenya with 499 sera collected from January 2007 to December 2008 to determine the seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle in the SES. The samples were screened against the five serotypes of FMD known to be in circulation in Kenya i.e., FMD O. A, C, SAT1, SAT2 and measured by microneutralizationassay. The overall sero-prevalence of FMD in the Somali-ecosystem was found to be 45.3% (95% CI = 40.96 to 49.66%). Twenty seven percent of all animals sampled tested positive for only one serotype while 17.6% tested positive for multiple serotypes. There was a high prevalence (p#0.05) in the circulation of serotype O (23 and 95% CI = 20.13-27.57%) as compared with the other serotypes, while the prevalence of serotype C was significantly lower (p#0.05) compared to the other four serotypes (1.6 and 95% CI = 0.82-3.12). Wajir district recorded the highest prevalence (24.8 and 95% CI = 16.71 to 27.54) while Garissa district recorded the least (6.2%). There was no significant sero-prevalence variation in relation to sex while older animals had higher sero-prevalences. The pastoral mode of livestock production, porous borders and wildlife inter-phase are significant factors that need consideration for effective control programmes.
The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya
Francis Gakuya, Luca Rossi, Jackson Ombui, Ndichu Maingi, Gerald Muchemi, William Ogara, Ramón C Soriguer, Samer Alasaad
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-193
Abstract: Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest)- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah)-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya), which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey") of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah.In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.Sarcoptes scabiei is a ubiquitous ectoparasite infecting more than 100 species of mammals, worldwide [1-3].An epidemic can result from the introduction of a single case of scabies into crowded living conditions [4], which may result in devastating mortality in wild and domestic animals [5], with huge economic losses affecting the world animal trade [6].Numerous epidemiological studies have been reported from different human, wild and domestic populations [7,8] but the epidemiology of sarcoptic mange is still not well understood and seems to differ between different areas and animal species of the world [1].Recently, there have been at
Computing Reachable Sets as Capture-Viability Kernels in Reverse Time  [PDF]
No?l Bonneuil
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.311219
Abstract: The set SF(x0;T) of states y reachable from a given state x0 at time T under a set-valued dynamic x’(t)∈F(x (t)) and under constraints x(t)∈K where K is a closed set, is also the capture-viability kernel of x0 at T in reverse time of the target {x0} while remaining in K. In dimension up to three, Saint-Pierre’s viability algorithm is well-adapted; for higher dimensions, Bonneuil’s viability algorithm is better suited. It is used on a large-dimensional example.
Three Dimensional Evolution of SN 1987A in a Self-Gravitating Disk  [PDF]
L. Zaninetti
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.32010
Abstract:

The introduction of an exponential or power law gradient in the interstellar medium (ISM) allows to produce an asymmetric evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) when the framework of the thin layer approximation is adopted. Unfortunately both the exponential and power law gradients for the ISM do not have a well defined physical meaning. The physics conversely is well represented by an isothermal self-gravitating disk of particles whose velocity is everywhere Maxwellian. We derived a law of motion in the framework of the thin layer approximation with a control parameter of the swept mass. The photon’s losses, which are often neglected in the thin layer approximation, are modeled trough velocity dependence. The developed framework is applied to SNR 1987A and the three observed rings are simulated.

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