Abstract:
Background Extensive use of praziquantel for treatment and control of schistosomiasis requires a comprehensive understanding of efficacy and safety of various doses for different Schistosoma species. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative and non-comparative trials of praziquantel at any dose for any Schistosoma species assessed within two months post-treatment. Of 273 studies identified, 55 were eligible (19,499 subjects treated with praziquantel, control treatment or placebo). Most studied were in school-aged children (64%), S. mansoni (58%), and the 40 mg/kg dose (56%); 68% of subjects were in Africa. Efficacy was assessed as cure rate (CR, n = 17,017) and egg reduction rate (ERR, n = 13,007); safety as adverse events (AE) incidence. The WHO-recommended dose of praziquantel 40 mg/kg achieved CRs of 94.7% (95%CI 92.2–98.0) for S. japonicum, 77.1% (68.4–85.1) for S. haematobium, 76.7% (95%CI 71.9–81.2) for S. mansoni, and 63.5% (95%CI 48.2–77.0) for mixed S. haematobium/S. mansoni infections. Using a random-effect meta-analysis regression model, a dose-effect for CR was found up to 40 mg/kg for S. mansoni and 30 mg/kg for S. haematobium. The mean ERR was 95% for S. japonicum, 94.1% for S. haematobium, and 86.3% for S. mansoni. No significant relationship between dose and ERR was detected. Tolerability was assessed in 40 studies (12,435 subjects). On average, 56.9% (95%CI 47.4–67.9) of the subjects receiving praziquantel 40 mg/kg experienced an AE. The incidence of AEs ranged from 2.3% for urticaria to 31.1% for abdominal pain. Conclusions/Significance The large number of subjects allows generalizable conclusions despite the inherent limitations of aggregated-data meta-analyses. The choice of praziquantel dose of 40 mg/kg is justified as a reasonable compromise for all species and ages, although in a proportion of sites efficacy may be lower than expected and age effects could not be fully explored.

Abstract:
We report the first observation of coherent back-scattering (CBS) of light in a transverse photonic disorder. The CBS peak is recorded in the far-field, at a fixed propagation time set by our crystal length, and displays a contrast approaching the ideal value of 1, which proves good coherence of transport in our system. We study its dynamics for increasing disorder strength, and find a non-monotonous evolution. For weak disorder, the CBS signal increases, and the asymmetry of the momentum distribution becomes inverted compared to the initial condition. For stronger disorder, we observe a resymmetrization of the momentum distribution, confirmed by numerical simulations, and compatible with the onset of strong (Anderson) localization.

Abstract:
We generalize the theorems of Stein--Tomas and Strichartz about surface restrictions of Fourier transforms to systems of orthonormal functions with an optimal dependence on the number of functions. We deduce the corresponding Strichartz bounds for solutions to Schr\"odinger equations up to the endpoint, thereby solving an open problem of Frank, Lewin, Lieb and Seiringer. We also prove uniform Sobolev estimates in Schatten spaces, extending the results of Kenig, Ruiz, and Sogge. We finally provide applications of these results to a Limiting Absorption Principle in Schatten spaces, to the well-posedness of the Hartree equation in Schatten spaces, to Lieb--Thirring bounds for eigenvalues of Schr\"odinger operators with complex potentials, and to Schatten properties of the scattering matrix.

Abstract:
Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE) and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE). The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to and allocation of water though they are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water-user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.

Abstract:
Coalescents with multiple collisions, also known as $\Lambda$-coalescents, were introduced by Pitman and Sagitov in 1999. These processes describe the evolution of particles that undergo stochastic coagulation in such a way that several blocks can merge at the same time to form a single block. In the case that the measure $\Lambda$ is the $\operatorname {Beta}(2-\alpha,\alpha)$ distribution, they are also known to describe the genealogies of large populations where a single individual can produce a large number of offspring. Here, we use a recent result of Birkner et al. to prove that Beta-coalescents can be embedded in continuous stable random trees, about which much is known due to the recent progress of Duquesne and Le Gall. Our proof is based on a construction of the Donnelly--Kurtz lookdown process using continuous random trees, which is of independent interest. This produces a number of results concerning the small-time behavior of Beta-coalescents. Most notably, we recover an almost sure limit theorem of the present authors for the number of blocks at small times and give the multifractal spectrum corresponding to the emergence of blocks with atypical size. Also, we are able to find exact asymptotics for sampling formulae corresponding to the site frequency spectrum and the allele frequency spectrum associated with mutations in the context of population genetics.

Abstract:
Consider a system of particles performing branching Brownian motion with negative drift $\mu = \sqrt{2 - \epsilon}$ and killed upon hitting zero. Initially there is one particle at $x>0$. Kesten showed that the process survives with positive probability if and only if $\epsilon>0$. Here we are interested in the asymptotics as $\eps\to 0$ of the survival probability $Q_\mu(x)$. It is proved that if $L= \pi/\sqrt{\epsilon}$ then for all $x \in \R$, $\lim_{\epsilon \to 0} Q_\mu(L+x) = \theta(x) \in (0,1)$ exists and is a travelling wave solution of the Fisher-KPP equation. Furthermore, we obtain sharp asymptotics of the survival probability when $x

Abstract:
Consider a $\Lambda$-coalescent that comes down from infinity (meaning that it starts from a configuration containing infinitely many blocks at time 0, yet it has a finite number $N_t$ of blocks at any positive time $t>0$). We exhibit a deterministic function $v:(0,\infty)\to(0,\infty)$ such that $N_t/v(t)\to1$, almost surely, and in $L^p$ for any $p\geq1$, as $t\to0$. Our approach relies on a novel martingale technique.

Abstract:
For a finite measure $\varLambda$ on $[0,1]$, the $\varLambda$-coalescent is a coalescent process such that, whenever there are $b$ clusters, each $k$-tuple of clusters merges into one at rate $\int_0^1x^{k-2}(1-x)^{b-k}\varLambda(\mathrm{d}x)$. It has recently been shown that if $1<\alpha<2$, the $\varLambda$-coalescent in which $\varLambda$ is the $\operatorname {Beta}(2-\alpha,\alpha)$ distribution can be used to describe the genealogy of a continuous-state branching process (CSBP) with an $\alpha$-stable branching mechanism. Here we use facts about CSBPs to establish new results about the small-time asymptotics of beta coalescents. We prove an a.s. limit theorem for the number of blocks at small times, and we establish results about the sizes of the blocks. We also calculate the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of a metric space associated with the beta coalescents, and we find the sum of the lengths of the branches in the coalescent tree, both of which are determined by the behavior of coalescents at small times. We extend most of these results to other $\varLambda$-coalescents for which $\varLambda$ has the same asymptotic behavior near zero as the $\operatorname {Beta}(2-\alpha,\alpha)$ distribution. This work complements recent work of Bertoin and Le Gall, who also used CSBPs to study small-time properties of $\varLambda$-coalescents.

Abstract:
An error analysis result is given for classical Gram--Schmidt factorization of a full rank matrix $A$ into $A=QR$ where $Q$ is left orthogonal (has orthonormal columns) and $R$ is upper triangular. The work presented here shows that the computed $R$ satisfies $\normal{R}=\normal{A}+E$ where $E$ is an appropriately small backward error, but only if the diagonals of $R$ are computed in a manner similar to Cholesky factorization of the normal equations matrix. A similar result is stated in [Giraud at al, Numer. Math. 101(1):87--100,2005]. However, for that result to hold, the diagonals of $R$ must be computed in the manner recommended in this work.

Abstract:
We consider a system of particles which perform branching Brownian motion with negative drift and are killed upon reaching zero, in the near-critical regime where the total population stays roughly constant with approximately N particles. We show that the characteristic time scale for the evolution of this population is of order $(\log N)^3$, in the sense that when time is measured in these units, the scaled number of particles converges to a variant of Neveu's continuous-state branching process. Furthermore, the genealogy of the particles is then governed by a coalescent process known as the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent. This validates the nonrigorous predictions by Brunet, Derrida, Muller and Munier for a closely related model.