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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 218039 matches for " L. Holmes Jr. "
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Racial/Ethnic Variability in Hypertension Prevalence and Risk Factors in National Health Interview Survey
L. Holmes Jr.,J. Hossain,D. Ward,F. Opara
ISRN Hypertension , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/257842
Abstract: Objective. Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death attributed to cardiovascular diseases, and the prevalence varies across racial/ethnic groups, with African Americans being disproportionately affected. The underlying causes of these disparities are not fully understood despite volume of literature in this perspective. We aimed in this current study to examine ethnic/racial disparities in hypertension utilizing Hispanics as the base racial/ethnic group for comparison. Research Design and Methods. We utilized the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which is a large cross-sectional survey of the United States non-institutionalized residents to investigate the racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension after the adjustment of other socio-economic, demographic, and prognostic risk factors. The study participants were adults (n = 30,852). Data were analyzed using Chi square statistic, and logistic regression model. Results. There were statistically significant differences by race/ethnicity with respect to income, education, marital status, smoking, alcohol, physical activities, body mass index, and age, P < 0.01, but not insurance coverage, P > 0.01. Hispanic ethnicity (18.9%) compared to either non-Hispanic white (27.7%) or non-Hispanic black (35.5%) was associated with the lowest prevalence of hypertension. Race/ethnicity was a single independent predictor of hypertension, with non-Hispanic black more likely to be hypertensive compare with Hispanic, prevalence odds ratio (POR), 2.38, 99% Confidence Interval (CI), 2.17–2.61 and non-Hispanic white, POR, 1.64, 99% CI, 1.52–1.77. After controlling for the confounding variables, the racial/ethnic differences in hypertension persisted. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension persisted after controlling for potential predictors of hypertension in NHIS, implying the inability of known hypertension risk factors to account for racial/ethnic variability in hypertension in US. 1. Introduction Hypertension remains one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality in the United States population, affecting disproportionately non-Hispanic blacks [1–4]. The etiology of hypertension is multifactorial and incidence, prevalence and mortality vary by race/ethnicity [5–7]. A study has shown that the age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension by race, in the year 2003-2004, among the United States residents of age 20 years or older was 39.1% non-Hispanic Black, 28.5% non-Hispanic White, and 27.8% Hispanic, while age-unadjusted prevalence rate was 34.4%, 30.3%, and 16.9% for three racial groups,
Is there racial/ethnic variance in cervical cancer- specific survival of older women in the united states?
L Holmes, J Hossain
International Journal of Health Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To examine racial/ethnic differences in cervical carcinoma survival of older US women, as well as the impact of income, cell type (tumor histology), tumor stage and treatment on survival of this cohort. Methods: A population-based cohort of women diagnosed with incident cervical carcinoma, between 1992 and 1999, in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Data was linked with Medicare to examine the impact of race/ethnicity on overall and cancer-specific survival, using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and multivariable Cox Regression model. Results: There was no significant racial/ethnic variation in overall and cervical cancer-specific survival. However, the advanced tumor stage at diagnosis, treatment received and advanced age at tumor diagnosis were the only significant predictors of survival. Compared with no surgery, there was a significant 66% decreased risk of dying from overall cause of death (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR = 0.34, 5% Confidence Interval, CI = 0.26-0.46), and significant 51% decreased risk of dying from cervical cancer-specific cause, AHR = 0.41, 95% CI, 0.28-0.58, for women who received radical surgery. There was a dose-response effect between tumor stage at diagnosis and survival. Relative to women who were diagnosed with stage I tumor (early stage), those who were diagnosed at stage IV (late stage) were almost three times as likely to die from overall cause (AHR = 2.78, 95% CI, 2.24 – 3.45), as well as two times as likely to die from cancer-specific cause, AHR = 2.28, 95% CI, 1.76 – 2.29. The risk of dying also significantly increased with advancing age. Conclusion: There was no racial/ethnic variance in overall and cervical cancer-specific survival among older US women but survival was significantly influenced by treatment received tumor stage at diagnosis and age at diagnosis.
Next generation drug-eluting stents: focus on bioabsorbable platforms and polymers
Brendan Doyle, David R Holmes Jr
Medical Devices: Evidence and Research , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MDER.S5617
Abstract: generation drug-eluting stents: focus on bioabsorbable platforms and polymers Review (6872) Total Article Views Authors: Brendan Doyle, David R Holmes Jr Published Date November 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 47 - 55 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MDER.S5617 Brendan Doyle, David R Holmes Jr Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA Abstract: The success of drug-eluting stents in preventing restenosis has shifted the focus of new stent development toward enhancing long term safety and efficacy of these devices, while simultaneously eliminating the need for indefinite dual antiplatelet therapy. A technical advance fulfilling these aims would hold tremendous potential to reduce morbidity, mortality and economic costs associated with the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease. An attractive approach is the use of bioabsorbable stent designs. These may include stents with different bioabsorbable drugs, bioabsorbable polymers or even bioabsorbable metallic backbones. A device that could achieve excellent acute and long-term results, but disappear completely within months (thereby avoiding the need for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy), would be a tremendous advance. Too good to be true? We explore here the scientific rationale and prospects for success with this exciting concept.
Next generation drug-eluting stents: focus on bioabsorbable platforms and polymers
Brendan Doyle,David R Holmes Jr
Medical Devices: Evidence and Research , 2009,
Abstract: Brendan Doyle, David R Holmes JrDivision of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USAAbstract: The success of drug-eluting stents in preventing restenosis has shifted the focus of new stent development toward enhancing long term safety and efficacy of these devices, while simultaneously eliminating the need for indefinite dual antiplatelet therapy. A technical advance fulfilling these aims would hold tremendous potential to reduce morbidity, mortality and economic costs associated with the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease. An attractive approach is the use of bioabsorbable stent designs. These may include stents with different bioabsorbable drugs, bioabsorbable polymers or even bioabsorbable metallic backbones. A device that could achieve excellent acute and long-term results, but disappear completely within months (thereby avoiding the need for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy), would be a tremendous advance. Too good to be true? We explore here the scientific rationale and prospects for success with this exciting concept.Keywords: percutaneous coronary intervention, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, polymer, stent
Selected Plant Extracts Show Antiviral Effects against Murine Norovirus Surrogate  [PDF]
Uchenna Iloghalu, Bryce Holmes, Janak Khatiwada, Leonard L. Williams
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.94022
Abstract: Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis. Annually, 21 million Americans are infected with norovirus. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. However, there is no effective or efficient treatment/control against norovirus infection. Conventional intervention techniques used to inactivate norovirus have shown lack of efficacy against human norovirus. Currently, effective treatment or control measures against human norovirus have not been identified. In this study, murine norovirus acts as a model to human norovirus to evaluate the inhibitory effects of crude extracts of Zanthoxylum armatum and Hibiscus sabdariffa. The study also separated, identified and quantified the selected compounds using the ultra-liquid chromatography (UPLC). To study the antiviral activities of crude extracts and its fractionated portions of Z. armatum and H. sabdariffa against norovirus surrogate, RAW 264.7 cells were infected with Murine norovirus surrogate virus of human norovirus and incubated at 37?C. Phytochemicals were extracted from the seeds and calyces of the plants using methanolic extraction. Fractionated portions of the crude extracts were subsequently used in both chromatographic and microbiological studies. Our data indicated that there was reduction of viruses, when treated with the 60% aqueous methanol extracts. Amongst the four selected phenolic compounds (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin), quercetin showed the most significant logarithmic viral reductions. These compounds were identified, purified and quantified using UPLC. Extracts of Zanthoxylum armatum and Hibiscus sabdariffa showed antiviral effects. Phenolic compounds are virucidal. Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa also exhibits anti-norovirus activities. The results are anticipated to control/prevent the human norovirus infections.
Dark Particles Answer Dark Energy  [PDF]
John L. Haller Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.47A1010
Abstract:

This paper argues that a hypothetical “dark” particle (a black hole with the reduced Planck mass and arbitrary temperature) gives a simple explanation to the open question of dark energy and has a relic density of only 17% more than the commonly accepted value. By considering an additional near-horizon boundary of the black hole, set by its quantum length, the black hole can obtain an arbitrary temperature. Black-body radiation is still present and fits as the source of the Universe’s missing energy. Support for this hypothesis is offered by showing that a stationary solution to the black hole’s length scale is the same if derived from a quantum analysis in continuous time, a quantum analysis in discrete time, or a general relativistic analysis.

Entropy Rate of Thermal Diffusion  [PDF]
John L. Haller Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.410167
Abstract:

The thermal diffusion of a free particle is a random process and generates entropy at a rate equal to twice the particle’s temperature, \"\" (in natural units of information per second). The rate is calculated using a Gaussian process with a variance of \"\" which is a combination of quantum and classical diffusion. The solution to the quantum diffusion of a free particle is derived from the equation for kinetic energy and its associated imaginary diffusion constant; a real diffusion constant (representing classical diffusion) is shown to be \"\" . We find the entropy of the initial state is one natural unit, which is the same amount of entropy the process generates after the de-coherence time, \"\".

Measuring a Quantum System’s Classical Information  [PDF]
John L. Haller Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.51002
Abstract:

In the governing thought, I find an equivalence between the classical information in a quantum system and the integral of that system’s energy and time, specifically \"\", in natural units. I solve this relationship in four ways: the first approach starts with the Schrodinger Equation and applies the Minkowski transformation; the second uses the Canonical commutation relation; the third through Gabor’s analysis of the time-frequency plane and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; and lastly by quantizing Brownian motion within the Bernoulli process and applying the Gaussian channel capacity. In support I give two examples of quantum systems that follow the governing thought: namely the Gaussian wave packet and the electron spin. I conclude with comments on the discretization of space and the information content of a degree of freedom.

The Twins Clock Paradox History and Perspectives  [PDF]
Robert L. Shuler Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.512108
Abstract:

The twins or clock paradox has been a subject of lively discussion and occasional disagreement among both relativists and the public for over 100 years, and continues to attract physicists who write papers giving new analyses or defending old ones, even though many physicists now consider the matter only of educational interest. This paper investigates the number of papers, which is increasing, and trends in explanations, some of which are now targeted at professional physicists and other of which are targeted at optical or radar visualization rather than problem solving. Observations of students indicate that the latest techniques help but only somewhat. An analysis is made of 21 previous treatments appearing in the education related American Journal of Physics, Einstein’s discussions and several other pedagogical papers. A new memory aid for simultaneity transformation is given that puts it on a par with “time dilation” and “length contraction” for quick and easy problem visualization. The point of view of a trailing twin is introduced to show how simultaneity changes account for missing time in the turnaround. Length contraction is treated on equal footing with time dilation, and Swann’s insight into clocks is extended to lengths. Treatments using the conventionality of simultaneity are seen as equivalent to choice of co-moving frames. Responses to difficult questions are suggested which avoid being dismissive, and engage students’ critical thinking.

Effect of Heat Sterilization on the Bioactivity of Antibacterial Metabolites Secreted by Xenorhabdus nematophila
Floyd L. Inman,Leonard Holmes
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila are entomopathogenic bacterial symbionts of beneficial nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae, respectively. These bacterial symbionts are known to secrete an array of toxins, enzymes and antimicrobials that kill, bioconvert and protect the insect host for optimal nematode growth and reproduction. The present study explores heat stability of antibacterial metabolites secreted by X. nematophila. Permeate of a liquid X. nematophila culture was subjected to various sterilization treatments to observe the effects of heat sterilization on antibacterial activity. Activity was measured as bacterial sensitivity which is assayed utilizing a modified-version of the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results demonstrate that X. nematophila produces both heat-labile and heat-stabile antibacterials that are effective against different species of bacteria. Results also indicated that heat-stabile components are more active than heat-labile components. The discovery of an environmental organism that produces both heat-stabile and heat-labile antibacterials can be exploited to manufacture these compounds for potential medical applications for human and animal use.
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