Abstract:
Previously proposed measures of entanglement, such as entanglement of formation and assistance, are shown to be special cases of the relative entropy of entanglement. The difference between these measures for an ensemble of mixed states is shown to depend on the availability of classical information about particular members of the ensemble. Based on this, relations between relative entropy of entanglement and mutual information are derived.

Abstract:
We discuss the problem of separating consistently the total correlations in a bipartite quantum state into a quantum and a purely classical part. A measure of classical correlations is proposed and its properties are explored.

Abstract:
We prove two conjectures of Shareshian and Wachs about Eulerian quasisymmetric functions and polynomials. The first states that the cycle type Eulerian quasisymmetric function $Q_{\lambda,j}$ is Schur-positive, and moreover that the sequence $Q_{\lambda,j}$ as $j$ varies is Schur-unimodal. The second conjecture, which we prove using the first, states that the cycle type $(q,p)$-Eulerian polynomial \newline $A_\lambda^{\maj,\des,\exc}(q,p,q^{-1}t)$ is $t$-unimodal.

Abstract:
Quantum teleportation with additional a priori information about the input state achieves higher fidelity than teleportation of a completely unknown state. However, perfect teleportation of two non-orthogonal input states requires the same amount of entanglement as perfect teleportation of an unknown state, namely one ebit. We analyse how well two-state teleportation can be achieved using every degree of pure-state entanglement, and discuss the fidelity of `teleportation' that can be achieved with only classical communication but no shared entanglement. A two-state telecloning scheme is constructed.

Abstract:
Recent clinical trials have shown that a
daily dose of oral TDF/FTC pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in
reducing human immunodeficiency (HIV) risk. Understanding trial participants’
perspectives about retention and PrEP adherence is critical to inform future
PrEP trials and the scale-up and implementation of PrEP programs. We analyzed
53 in-depth interviews conducted in April 2010 with participants in the TDF2
study, a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, place-bo-controlled clinical trial
of daily oral TDF/FTC with heterosexual men and women in Francistown and
Gaborone, Botswana. We examined participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and
experiences of the trial, identified facilitators and barriers to enrollment
and retention, and compared participant responses by study site, sex, and study
drug adherence. Our findings point to several factors to consider for
participant retention and adherence in PrEP trials and programs, including conducting
pre-enrollment education and myth reduction counseling, providing accurate
estimates of participant obligations and side effect symptoms, ensuring
participant understanding of the effects of non-adherence, gauging personal
commitment and interest in study outcomes, and developing a strong external
social support network for participants.

Abstract:
We have analysed the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes of a continuum of vortices in a rotating superfluid. We have investigated how changing the temperature affects the growth rate of the disturbances. We find that, in the long axial wavelength limit the condition q=alpha/(1-alpha')=1, where alpha and alpha' are temperature-dependent mutual friction parameters, is the crossover between damped and propagating Kelvin waves. Thus at temperatures for which q>1, perturbations on the vortices are unlikely to cause vortex reconnections and turbulence. These results are in agreement with the recent discovery of Finne et al (2003} of an intrinsic condition for the onset of quantum turbulence in $^3$He-B.

Abstract:
Germanium dioxide ($GeO_2$) is a chemical analogue of $SiO_2$. Furthermore, it is also to some extent a structural analogue, as the low and high-pressure short-range order (tetrahedral and octahedral) is the same. However, a number of differences exist. For example, the $GeO_2$ phase diagram exhibits a smaller number of polymorphs, and all three $GeO_2$ phases (crystalline, glass, liquid) have an increased sensitivity to pressure, undergoing pressure induced changes at much lower pressures than their equivalent $SiO_2$ analogues. In addition, differences exist in $GeO_2$ glass in the medium range order, resulting in the glass transition temperature of germania being much lower than for silica. This review highlights the structure of amorphous $GeO_2$ by different experimental (e.g., Raman and NMR spectroscopy, neutron and x-ray diffraction) and theoretical methods (e.g., classical molecular dynamics, ab initio calculations). It also addresses the structure of liquid and crystalline $GeO_2$ that have received much less attention. Furthermore, we compare and contrast the structural differences between $GeO_2$ and $SiO_2$, as well as, along the $GeO_2-SiO_2$ join. It is probably a very timely review as interest in this compound, that can be investigated in the liquid state at relatively low temperatures and pressures, continues to increase.

Abstract:
We ask what type of mixed quantum states can arise when a number of separated parties start by sharing a pure quantum state and then this pure state becomes contaminated by noise. We show that not all mixed states arise in this way. This is even the case if the separated parties actively try to degrade their initial pure state by arbitrary local actions and classical communication.

Abstract:
In a recent experiment Finne et al. discovered an intrinsic condition for the onset of quantum turbulence in $^3$He-B, that q=alpha/(1-alpha')<1, where alpha and alpha' are mutual friction parameters. The authors argued that this condition corresponds to Kelvin waves which are marginally damped, so for q>1 Kelvin waves cannot grow in amplitude and trigger vortex reconnections and turbulence. By analysing both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes of oscillations of a rotating superfluid, we confirm that in the long axial wavelength limit the simple condition q=1 is indeed the crossover between damped and propagating Kelvin waves.

Abstract:
We consider how much entanglement can be produced by a non-local two-qubit unitary operation, $U_{AB}$ - the entangling capacity of $U_{AB}$. For a single application of $U_{AB}$, with no ancillas, we find the entangling capacity and show that it generally helps to act with $U_{AB}$ on an entangled state. Allowing ancillas, we present numerical results from which we can conclude, quite generally, that allowing initial entanglement typically increases the optimal capacity in this case as well. Next, we show that allowing collective processing does not increase the entangling capacity if initial entanglement is allowed.