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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208482 matches for " L. Giulianelli "
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Identification of historical ink ingredients using pyrolysis-GC-MS. A model study.
Y. Keheyan,L. Giulianelli
E-Preservation Science , 2006,
Abstract: In the past centuries inks were prepared using many different recipes and contained a great variety of ingredients. This work presents analyses of some substances, which were used in addition to the common components of inks such as gallnuts, vitriol and charcoal, in the course of ink preparation. Qualitative characterization of seeds and peel of pomegranate, arabic gum, apricot gum, saffron, henna and mustard are reported. The analyses were carried out using pyrolysis coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass-spectrometric detection (Py-GC/MS).
Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) (5079 m a.s.l.)
S. Decesari,M. C. Facchini,C. Carbone,L. Giulianelli
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P), the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m 3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm), with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m 3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm) on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm), confirming that optically-active aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow "ramp-up" period in the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic optically-active aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.). The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our findings, based on two years of observations of the aerosol chemical composition, provide clear evidence that the southern side of the high Himalayas are impacted by transport of anthropogenic aerosols which constitute the Asian brown cloud.
Chemical characterization of springtime submicrometer aerosol in Po Valley, Italy
S. Saarikoski, S. Carbone, S. Decesari, L. Giulianelli, F. Angelini, M. Canagaratna, N. L. Ng, A. Trimborn, M. C. Facchini, S. Fuzzi, R. Hillamo,D. Worsnop
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: The chemistry of submicron particles was investigated at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) measurement station in the Po Valley, Italy, in spring 2008. The measurements were performed by using both off-line and on-line instruments. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon, organic acids and biomass burning tracers were measured off-line by using a 24-h PM1 filter sampling. More detailed particle chemistry was achieved by using a Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and analyzing the data by positive matrix factorization (PMF). Oxalic acid had the highest concentrations of organic acids (campaign-average 97.4 ng m 3) followed by methane sulfonic, formic, malonic, and malic acids. Samples were also analyzed for glyoxylic, succinic, azelaic and maleic acids. In total, the nine acids composed 1.9 and 3.8% of OC and water-soluble OC, respectively (average), in terms of carbon atoms. Levoglucosan concentration varied from 17.7 to 495 ng m 3 with the concentration decreasing in the course of the campaign most likely due to the reduced use of domestic heating with wood. Six factors were found for organic aerosol (OA) at SPC by PMF: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), nitrogen-containing OA (N-OA) and three different oxygenated OAs (OOA-a, OOA-b and OOA-c). Most of the OA mass was composed of OOA-a, HOA and OOA-c (26, 24 and 22%, respectively) followed by OOA-b (13%), BBOA (8%) and N-OA (7%). As expected, OOAs were the most oxygenated factors with organic matter:organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios ranging from 1.9 to 2.2. The diurnal variability of the aerosol chemical composition was greatly affected by the boundary layer meteorology. Specifically, the effect of the nocturnal layer break-up in morning hours was most evident for nitrate and N-OA indicating that these compounds originated mainly from the local sources in the Po Valley. For sulfate and OOA-a the concentration did not change during the break-up suggesting their origin to be mostly regional. That resulted in much more oxidized OA in the daytime mixing layer than in the nocturnal surface layer. In this study, the high mass resolution and source-related aerosol chemistry from the HR-ToF-AMS was combined with the filter measurements in a total new extent elucidating novel features and sources of organic aerosol in the Po Valley region.
Corrigendum to "Chemical characterization of springtime submicrometer aerosol in Po Valley, Italy" published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8401–8421, 2012
S. Saarikoski, S. Carbone, S. Decesari, L. Giulianelli, F. Angelini, K. Teinil , M. Canagaratna, N. L. Ng, A. Trimborn, M. C. Facchini, S. Fuzzi, R. Hillamo,D. Worsnop
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: No abstract available.
Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) (5079 m a.s.l.)
S. Decesari, M. C. Facchini, C. Carbone, L. Giulianelli, M. Rinaldi, E. Finessi, S. Fuzzi, A. Marinoni, P. Cristofanelli, R. Duchi, P. Bonasoni, E. Vuillermoz, J. Cozic, J. L. Jaffrezo,P. Laj
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P), the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m 3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm), with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m 3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm) on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm), confirming that light-absorbing aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow recovery during the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.). The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our findings, based on two years of observations of the aerosol chemical composition, provide clear evidence that the southern side of the high Himalayas is impacted by transport of anthropogenic aerosols which constitute the Asian brown cloud.
Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by NMR spectroscopy
E. Finessi, S. Decesari, M. Paglione, L. Giulianelli, C. Carbone, S. Gilardoni, S. Fuzzi, S. Saarikoski, T. Raatikainen, R. Hillamo, J. Allan, Th. F. Mentel, P. Tiitta, A. Laaksonen, T. Pet j , M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop,M. C. Facchini
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: The study investigates the sources of fine organic aerosol (OA) in the boreal forest, based on measurements including both filter sampling (PM1) and online methods and carried out during a one-month campaign held in Hyyti l , Finland, in spring 2007. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, ToF-AMS) were employed to measure on-line concentrations of major non-refractory aerosol species, while the water extracts of the filter samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for organic functional group characterization of the polar organic fraction of the aerosol. AMS and NMR spectra were processed separately by non-negative factorization algorithms, in order to apportion the main components underlying the submicrometer organic aerosol composition and depict them in terms of both mass fragmentation patterns and functional group compositions. The NMR results supported the AMS speciation of oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) into two main fractions, which could be generally labelled as more and less oxidized organics. The more oxidized component was characterized by a mass spectrum dominated by the m/z 44 peak, and in parallel by a NMR spectrum showing aromatic and aliphatic backbones highly substituted with oxygenated functional groups (carbonyls/carboxyls and hydroxyls). Such component, contributing on average 50% of the OA mass throughout the observing period, was associated with pollution outbreaks from the Central Europe. The less oxidized component was enhanced in concomitance with air masses originating from the North-to-West sector, in agreement with previous investigations conducted at this site. NMR factor analysis was able to separate two distinct components under the less oxidized fraction of OA. One of these NMR-factors was associated with the formation of terrestrial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA), based on the comparison with spectral profiles obtained from laboratory experiments of terpenes photo-oxidation. The second NMR factor associated with western air masses was linked to biogenic marine sources, and was enriched in low-molecular weight aliphatic amines. Such findings provide evidence of at least two independent sources originating biogenic organic aerosols in Hyyti l by oxidation and condensation mechanisms: reactive terpenes emitted by the boreal forest and compounds of marine origin, with the latter relatively more important when predominantly polar air masses reach the site. This study is an example of how spectroscopic techniques, such as proton NMR, can add functional group specificity for certain chemical features (like aromatics) of OA with respect to AMS. They can therefore be profitably exploited to complement aerosol mass spectrometric measurements in organic source apportionment studies.
Mifepristone inhibits MPA-and FGF2-induced mammary tumor growth but not FGF2-induced mammary hyperplasia La mifepristona inhibe el crecimiento de carcinomas mamarios inducidos por MPA o por FGF2 pero no las hiperplasias mamarias inducidas por FGF2
Juan P. Cerliani,Sebastián Giulianelli,Ana Sahores,Victoria Wargon
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2010,
Abstract: We have previously demonstrated a crosstalk between fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and progestins inducing experimental breast cancer growth. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of FGF2 and of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the mouse mammary glands and to investigate whether the antiprogestin RU486 was able to reverse the MPA- or FGF2-induced effects on both, mammary gland and tumor growth. We demonstrate that FGF2 administered locally induced an intraductal hyperplasia that was not reverted by RU486, suggesting that FGF2-induced effects are progesterone receptor (PR)-independent. However, MPA-induced paraductal hyperplasia was reverted by RU486 and a partial agonistic effect was observed in RU486-treated glands. Using C4-HD tumors which only grow in the presence of MPA, we showed that FGF2 administered intratumorally was able to stimulate tumor growth as MPA. The histology of FGF2-treated tumors showed different degrees of gland differentiation. RU486 inhibited both, MPA or FGF2 induced tumor growth. However, only complete regression was observed in MPA-treated tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that stromal FGF2 activates PR inducing hormone independent tumor growth. Hemos demostrado previamente que la vía de se alización del factor de crecimiento fibroblástico 2 (FGF2) interactúa con la vía de los receptores de progesterona (RP) induciendo el crecimiento del cáncer de mama experimental, y hemos postulado que el FGF2 estromal activaría los RP en los tumores hormono independientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar los efectos del FGF2 y del acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA) en la glándula mamaria de ratón e investigar si el antiprogestágeno RU486 induce la regresión del tumor hormono dependiente C4-HD que crece con MPA o con la administración intratumoral de FGF2. Demostramos que la administración diaria local de FGF2 induce una hiperplasia intraductal mamaria que no es revertida por el tratamiento con RU486. Por otra parte, el RU486 revierte la hiperplasia paraductal inducida por MPA y sólo induce un efecto agonista parcial. Estos datos sugieren que el efecto del FGF2 en la glándula mamaria es RP independiente. Demostramos que el tumor C4-HD crece in vivo con la administración intratumoral de FGF2. En este caso, la histología revela un mayor grado de diferenciación, similar al observado en el tumor C4-HI que crece sin el aporte exógeno de hormonas. El RU-486 inhibió tanto la estimulación inducida por MPA como por FGF2. Los resultados apoyan la hipótesis de que el FGF2 estromal activa al RP induciendo el c
Corrigendum to "Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview" published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8413-8435, 2010
M. Dall'Osto, D. Ceburnis, G. Martucci, J. Bialek, R. Dupuy, S. G. Jennings, H. Berresheim, J. C. Wenger, R. M. Healy, M. C. Facchini, M. Rinaldi, L. Giulianelli, E. Finessi, D. Worsnop, M. Ehn, J. Mikkil , M. Kulmala, J. Sodeau,C. D. O'Dowd
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: No abstract available.
Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview
M. Dall'Osto, D. Ceburnis, G. Martucci, J. Bialek, R. Dupuy, S. G. Jennings, H. Berresheim, J. Wenger, R. Healy, M. C. Facchini, M. Rinaldi, L. Giulianelli, E. Finessi, D. Worsnop, M. Ehn, J. Mikkil , M. Kulmala,C. D. O'Dowd
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June, 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the N. E. Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm 3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400–600 cm 3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm 3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40–50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water soluble organic carbon, which, in turn, was dominated by methanesulphonic acid (MSA). Sulphate concentrations were highest in marine tropical air – even higher than in continental air. MSA was present at twice the concentrations of previously-reported concentrations at the same location and the same season. Both continental and marine air exhibited aerosol GFs significantly less than ammonium sulphate aerosol pointing to a significant organic contribution to all air mass aerosol properties.
El receptor de estrógenos alfa como mediador del efecto proliferativo de progestágenos en cáncer de mama The role of estrogen receptor alpha in breast cancer cell proliferation mediated by progestins
Sebastián Giulianelli,José P. Vaqué,Victoria Wargon,Rocío Soldati
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2012,
Abstract: En carcinomas mamarios murinos (C4-HD) y en células de cáncer de mama humano (T47D) observamos que el progestágeno sintético, acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA), induce la activación del receptor de estrógenos alfa (REa) y su asociación nuclear con el receptor de progesterona (RP). En este trabajo postulamos que dicha interacción a nivel genómico sería fundamental para desarrollar respuestas proliferativas mediadas por progestágenos. Demostramos que el antiestrógeno fulvestrant (FUL, ICI182.780) indujo la regresión completa de tumores C4-HD creciendo con MPA. El progestágeno indujo la expresión temprana de CCND1 y MYC en células T47D y este efecto fue revertido al bloquear el REa. En células tratadas con MPA utilizamos ensayos de inmunoprecipitación de la cromatina (ChIP) y corroboramos la colocalización nuclear de RP/REa en los mismos sitios de los promotores de CCND1 y MYC. El ICI no afectó la unión de RP a ambas secuencias regulatorias, pero sí inhibió la unión del REa. Confirmamos la interacción nuclear entre REa y RP en muestras de cáncer de mama humano. Los resultados demuestran que la presencia del REa, interactuando con el RP, en promotores de CCND1 y MYC es fundamental para la transcripción génica y la proliferación celular inducida por el progestágeno. In C4-HD murine mammary carcinomas and in human breast cancer T47D cells, we showed that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induces a nuclear physical association between estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) and progesterone receptors (PR). The blockade of ERa inhibits cell proliferation mediated by progestins. We hypothesized that this nuclear association between ERa/PR is necessary to trigger progestin-induced cell proliferation and tumor growth. We demonstrated that fulvestrant (FUL, ICI182.780) induced complete regression of C4-HD tumors growing with progestins. MPA treatment induced an early increase in both CCND1 and MYC expression in T47D cells. The blockade of ERa prevented the MPA-dependent transcription of both genes. Specific binding of PR/ERa was observed at the same MPA-sensitive regions at the CCND1 and MYC gene promoters after chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. ICI inhibited binding of ERa to both gene regulatory sequences while PR binding was unaffected. The nuclear colocalization bet ween both receptors in T47D cells was confirmed by: confocal microscopy, Duolink assays and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In breast cancer samples we also observed a nuclear interaction between both steroid receptors. Our results indicate that the presence of ERa interacting with activated PR
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