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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 321596 matches for " L. F. F. Stokes "
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Monte Carlo aided design of the inner muon veto detectors for the Double Chooz experiment
D. Dietrich,D. Greiner,J. Jochum,T. Lachenmaier,L. F. F. Stokes,M. R?hling
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/08/P08012
Abstract: The Double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to measure the last unknown neutrino mixing angle theta_13 using two identical detectors positioned at sites both near and far from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant. To suppress correlated background induced by cosmic muons in the detectors, they are protected by veto detector systems. One of these systems is the inner muon veto. It is an active liquid scintillator based detector and instrumented with encapsulated photomultiplier tubes. In this paper we describe the Monte Carlo aided design process of the inner muon veto, that resulted in a detector configuration with 78 PMTs yielding an efficiency of 99.978 +- 0.004% for rejecting muon events and an efficiency of >98.98% for rejecting correlated events induced by muons. A veto detector of this design is currently used at the far detector site and will be built and incorporated as the muon identification system at the near site of the Double Chooz experiment.
Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy, and the Housing Bubble  [PDF]
John F. McDonald, Houston H. Stokes
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.62014
Abstract: The paper employs monthly data to test alternative hypotheses for the causes of the large increase and subsequent decline in U.S. housing prices during the 2000-2010 decade. The empirical evidence using VAR modeling is consistent with the hypothesis that Federal Reserve interest rate policy was a cause of the movements in housing prices. In addition, federal fiscal policy and interest rates on adjustable-rate mortgages are found to be associated with housing prices. On the other hand, the interest rate on standard 30-year mortgages and a measure of net capital flows from abroad were not related to housing prices. Foreclosure rates were also important. The study finds that foreclosures and housing prices interacted: more foreclosures produced lower housing prices and lower housing prices generated more foreclosures.
Correlated Detection of sub-mHz Gravitational Waves by Two Optical-Fiber Interferometers
Cahill R. T.,Stokes F.
Progress in Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Results from two optical-fiber gravitational-wave interferometric detectors are reported. The detector design is very small, cheap and simple to build and operate. Using two detectors has permitted various tests of the design principles as well as demonstrating the first simultaneous detection of correlated gravitational waves from detectors spatially separated by 1.1 km. The frequency spectrum of the detected gravitational waves is sub-mHz with a strain spectral index $a = - 1.4 +- 0.1$. As well as characterising the wave effects the detectors also show, from data collected over some 80 days in the latter part of 2007, the dominant earth rotation effect and the earth orbit effect. The detectors operate by exploiting light speed anisotropy in optical-fibers. The data confirms previous observations of light speed anisotropy, earth rotation and orbit effects, and gravitational waves.
Dynamics of Housing Price: Foreclosure Rate Interactions
John F. McDonald,Houston H. Stokes
ISRN Economics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/250459
Abstract: The dynamic impacts of the federal funds rate and the foreclosure rate on the log of the S&P/Case-Shiller aggregate 10-city monthly housing price index are investigated using VMA modeling techniques in the period 2000(1)–2011(3). The findings are consistent with the view that the interest rate policy of the Federal Reserve in that period that kept rates artificially low contributed to the housing bubble. Positive shocks in the foreclosure rate are shown to be associated with declines in the change in the housing price index after a lag. In addition, negative shocks in the change in the housing price index are associated with a higher foreclosure rate. The results suggest that both the change in the housing price index and the foreclosure rate create a negative externality that is dynamic. 1. Introduction Recent studies have documented the negative impact of foreclosures on housing prices. The most recent studies employ data that pertain to the period after the collapse of the housing price bubble in the US. As this paper is being written, the effects of the boom and bust of housing prices are still playing out over seven years after the peak in housing prices. The research strategy that has been followed in most of the previous studies is to examine the effect of nearby foreclosures in a recent prior time period on the selling prices of individual houses. However, most of these studies do not examine the effect of a decline in housing prices on foreclosure rates (An exception is the recent study by Capozza and Van Order [1], which finds that worsening economic conditions (i.e., declining house prices) are associated with much of the increase in mortgage defaults.). It is generally understood that a drop in the value of a house increases the incentive to default of the mortgage loan, especially if the fall in house value puts the owner “under water.” The remaining balance on the loan is greater than the value of the house. A foreclosed house adds one more house to the supply of houses but does not increase demand since the credit rating of the prior owners is usually lower, limiting their demand in the housing market. The net effect is a further downward pressure on housing prices, usually with a lag. The basic hypothesis to be investigated in this paper is that house prices and foreclosure rates interact over time conditional on the log federal funds rate. The results of the study show that the housing market generates dynamic negative externalities that at this time seem to have no end point. An increase in foreclosures begets declines in house prices,
Ice structures, patterns, and processes: A view across the ice-fields
Thorsten Bartels-Rausch,Vance Bergeron,Julyan H. E. Cartwright,Rafael Escribano,John L. Finney,Hinrich Grothe,Pedro J. Gutiérrez,Jari Haapala,Werner F. Kuhs,Jan B. C. Pettersson,Stephen D. Price,C. Ignacio Sainz-Díaz,Debbie J. Stokes,Giovanni Strazzulla,Erik S. Thomson,Hauke Trinks,Nevin Uras-Aytemiz
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.84.885
Abstract: We look ahead from the frontiers of research on ice dynamics in its broadest sense; on the structures of ice, the patterns or morphologies it may assume, and the physical and chemical processes in which it is involved. We highlight open questions in the various fields of ice research in nature; ranging from terrestrial and oceanic ice on Earth, to ice in the atmosphere, to ice on other solar system bodies and in interstellar space.
Analysis of large-scale anisotropy of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in HiRes data
R. U. Abbasi,T. Abu-Zayyad,M. Allen,J. F. Amann,G. Archbold,K. Belov,J. W. Belz,D. R. Bergman,S. A. Blake,O. A. Brusova,G. W. Burt,C. Cannon,Z. Cao,W. Deng,Y. Fedorova,J. Findlay,C. B. Finley,R. C. Gray,W. F. Hanlon,C. M. Hoffman,M. H. Holzscheiter,G. Hughes,P. Hüntemeyer,D. Ivanov,B. F Jones,C. C. H. Jui,K. Kim,M. A. Kirn,H. Koers,E. C. Loh,M. M. Maestas,N. Manago,L. J. Marek,K. Martens,J. A. J. Matthews,J. N. Matthews,S. A. Moore,A. O'Neill,C. A. Painter,L. Perera,K. Reil,R. Riehle,M. D. Roberts,D. Rodriguez,M. Sasaki,S. R. Schnetzer,L. M. Scott,G. Sinnis,J. D. Smith,P. Sokolsky,C. Song,R. W. Springer,B. T. Stokes,S. R. Stratton,J. R. Thomas,S. B. Thomas,G. B. Thomson,P. Tinyakov,D. Tupa,L. R. Wiencke,A. Zech,X. Zhang
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/713/1/L64
Abstract: Stereo data collected by the HiRes experiment over a six year period are examined for large-scale anisotropy related to the inhomogeneous distribution of matter in the nearby Universe. We consider the generic case of small cosmic-ray deflections and a large number of sources tracing the matter distribution. In this matter tracer model the expected cosmic ray flux depends essentially on a single free parameter, the typical deflection angle theta. We find that the HiRes data with threshold energies of 40 EeV and 57 EeV are incompatible with the matter tracer model at a 95% confidence level unless theta is larger than 10 degrees and are compatible with an isotropic flux. The data set above 10 EeV is compatible with both the matter tracer model and an isotropic flux.
Indications of Proton-Dominated Cosmic Ray Composition above 1.6 EeV
R. U. Abbasi,T. Abu-Zayyad,M. Al-Seady,M. Allen,J. F. Amman,R. J. Anderson,G. Archbold,K. Belov,J. W. Belz,D. R. Bergman,S. A. Blake,O. A. Brusova,G. W. Burt,C. Cannon,Z. Cao,W. Deng,Y. Fedorova,C. B. Finley,R. C. Gray,W. F. Hanlon,C. M. Hoffman,M. H. Holzscheiter,G. Hughes,P. Huentemeyer,B. F Jones,C. C. H. Jui,K. Kim,M. A. Kirn,E. C. Loh,J. P. Lundquist,M. M. Maestas,N. Manago,L. J. Marek,K. Martens,J. A. J. Matthews,J. N. Matthews,S. A. Moore,A. O'Neill,C. A. Painter,L. Perera,K. Reil,R. Riehle,M. Roberts,D. Rodriguez,N. Sasaki,S. R. Schnetzer,L. M. Scott,G. Sinnis,J. D. Smith,P. Sokolsky,C. Song,R. W. Springer,B. T. Stokes,S. Stratton,S. B. Thomas,J. R. Thomas,G. B. Thomson,D. Tupa,X. Zhang,A. Zech
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.161101
Abstract: We report studies of ultra-high energy cosmic ray composition via analysis of depth of airshower maximum (Xmax), for airshower events collected by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) observatory. The HiRes data are consistent with a constant elongation rate d/d(log(E)) of 47.9 +- 6.0 (stat.) +- 3.2 (syst.)g/cm^2/decade for energies between 1.6 EeV and 63 EeV, and are consistent with a predominantly protonic composition of cosmic rays when interpreted via the QGSJET01 and QGSJET-II high-energy hadronic interaction models. These measurements constrain models in which the galactic-to-extragalactic transition is the cause of the energy spectrum "ankle' at 4 EeV.
Effect of Concentration on the Optical and Solid State Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Aqueous Chemical Growth (ACG) Method  [PDF]
S. L. Mammah, F. E. Opara, F. B. Sigalo, S. C. Ezugwu, F. I. Ezema
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.39124
Abstract: Thin films of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) having different concentrations were deposited using the Aqueous Chemical Growth (ACG) method. The films were characterized using Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) spectroscopy for chemical composition and thickness, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for crystallographic structure, a UV-VIS spectrophotometer for the analysis of the optical and solid state properties which include spectral absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, direct band gap, real and imaginary dielectric constants, absorption and extinction coefficients and a photomicroscope for photomicrographs. The average deposited film thickness was 100 nm. The results indicate that the values of all the optical and solid state properties investigated vary directly with concentration except transmittance which is the reverse. Thus, the optical and solid state properties of ZnO thin film deposited by the Acqueous Chemical Growth method can be tuned by deliberately controlling the concentration of the precursors for various optoelectronic applications including its application as absorber layer in solar cells.
Annealing Effect on the Solid State and Optical Properties of αFe2O3 Thin Films Deposited Using the Aqueous Chemical Growth (ACG) Method  [PDF]
S. L. Mammah, F. E. Opara, F. B. Sigalo, S. C. Ezugwu, F. I. Ezema
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.311115
Abstract: Thin films of hematite (α-Fe2O3) were deposited by heteronucleation through the process of hydrolysis and condensation of an aqueous solution of 0.1 M Fe (NO3)3.9H2O, 1 M NaNO3, 50 ml H2O in addition with five drops of HCl at 90℃. One of the samples was kept as prepared while the others were annealed at different temperatures in order to determine the effect of annealing on their solid state and optical properties. The films were characterized using Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS), spectroscopy for chemical composition and thickness, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for structural analysis, UV-VIS Spectrophotometer for the analysis of other solid state and optical properties and a photomicroscope for photomicrographs. The results indicate that while the absorbance and absorption coefficient decreases with increasing annealing temperature, the direct band gap and refractive index increases with increasing annealing temperature in the direction of increasing photon energy in the visible range. Also, there is a high infrared transmittance which increases with increasing annealing temperature and a shift/decrease in peak value of all the optical properties except transmittance in the direction of increasing photon energy as annealing temperature increases. The results further indicate that ACG hematite thin film annealed at 632K is a suitable metal oxide semiconductor material for photocatalytic applications. It is also suitable for use in the construction of poultry houses for the rearing of chicks because of its high infrared transmittance including other opto-electronic applications.
Evaluation of Stress Response and Apoptosis on Leucocytes in TIVA versus Balanced Anesthesia  [PDF]
G. Soto, F. Pignolo, F. Calero, F. Saucina, L. Lainatti, S. Molinari, G. Harvey
Open Journal of Apoptosis (OJApo) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojapo.2017.61001
Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to assess the stress response and apoptosis on leucocytes, in patients under two different anesthetics techniques. Methods: Thirty patients ASA I-II were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive either total intravenous anesthesia with propofol-remifentanil (TIVA Group, n = 15) or balanced inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane-remifentanil (BAL Group, n = 15). The hemodynamic response: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) at different time points: baseline, after intubation, after skin incision and at the end of surgery, was measured along with plasma levels of lactate, glucose, cortisol and leucocytes count. The biomarkers of apoptosis (Annexin V and Propidium Iodide) in neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were evaluated at baseline, intraoperatively and two hours after surgery. Results: The study groups were comparable with respect to anthropometric data. No significant intergroup differences in SBP and DBP were revealed. The HR in the BAL group was lower after intubation (p = 0.007). In both groups, lactate, plasma glucose, cortisol and leucocytes count remained stable during surgery and two hours post-operatively. In the BAL group there were significant differences in Annexin V in neutrophils, baseline moment (p = 0.010). No significant differences were found in apoptosis markers (Annexin V and Propidium Iodide) in neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, at different time points. Conclusion: Both TIVA and BAL were effective in suppressing the surgical stress, without inducing apoptosis in immune cells, in patients undergoing VCL.
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