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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219412 matches for " L. Di Noto "
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Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in southern Italy from 2000-2005: molecular typing of isolates from human and non human sources
Caterina Mammina,Anna Maria Di Noto,Aurora Aleo,Antonella Costa
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2427/5897
Abstract: Serotype Infantis ranks within the top-five Salmonella serotypes in many European countries. An association between this serotype and the poultry ecosystem is apparent in some geographic areas and could account for its persistent or emergent role as causative agent of human salmonellosis. Recently, in southern Italy isolation from eggs and poultry has become increasingly frequent, and in one case the egg yolk also cultured positive. Molecular typing was performed to assess the possible relationship among isolates from human, food and animal sources. Isolates of serotype Infantis identified in southern Italy between 2000 and 2005 rom various sources were submitted to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) by a CHEF-Mapper apparatus fter endonuclease digestion of DNA by XbaI. PFGE patterns of isolates from swine and poultry reservoirs showed distinctive PFGE profiles and human solates shared pulsotypes with isolates from both sources. Moreover, egg isolates from different farms ppeared very similar to each other. Epidemiological investigation and risk assessment can obtain reliable and useful pointers from he pplication of molecular epidemiology techniques.
Eye Exercises Enhance Accuracy and Letter Recognition, but Not Reaction Time, in a Modified Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Task
Paula Di Noto, Sorin Uta, Joseph F. X. DeSouza
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059244
Abstract: Eye exercises have been prescribed to resolve a multitude of eye-related problems. However, studies on the efficacy of eye exercises are lacking, mainly due to the absence of simple assessment tools in the clinic. Because similar regions of the brain are responsible for eye movements and visual attention, we used a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to assess any measurable effect of short-term eye exercise in improvements within these domains. In the present study, twenty subjects were equally divided into control and experimental groups, each of which performed a pre-training RSVP assessment where target letters, to which subjects were asked to respond to by pressing a spacebar, were serially and rapidly presented. Response time to target letters, accuracy of correctly responding to target letters, and correct identification of target letters in each of 12 sessions was measured. The experimental group then performed active eye exercises, while the control group performed a task that minimized eye movements for 18.5 minutes. A final post-training RSVP assessment was performed by both groups and response time, accuracy, and letter identification were compared between and within subject groups both pre- and post-training. Subjects who performed eye exercises were more accurate in responding to target letters separated by one distractor and in letter identification in the post-training RSVP assessment, while latency of responses were unchanged between and within groups. This suggests that eye exercises may prove useful in enhancing cognitive performance on tasks related to attention and memory over a very brief course of training, and RSVP may be a useful measure of this efficacy. Further research is needed on eye exercises to determine whether they are an effective treatment for patients with cognitive and eye-related disorders.
Ecohydrology in Mediterranean areas: a numerical model to describe growing seasons out of phase with precipitations
D. Pumo, F. Viola,L. V. Noto
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: The probabilistic description of soil moisture dynamics is a relatively new topic in hydrology. The most common ecohydrological models start from a stochastic differential equation describing the soil water balance, where the unknown quantity, the soil moisture, depends both on spaces and time. Most of the solutions existing in literature are obtained in a probabilistic framework and under steady-state condition; even if this last condition allows the analytical handling of the problem, it has considerably simplified the same problem by subtracting generalities from it. The steady-state hypothesis, appears perfectly applicable in arid and semiarid climatic areas like those of African's or middle American's savannas, but it seems to be no more valid in areas with Mediterranean climate, where, notoriously, the wet season foregoes the growing season, recharging water into the soil. This moisture stored at the beginning of the growing season (known as soil moisture initial condition) has a great importance, especially for deep-rooted vegetation, by enabling survival in absence of rainfalls during the growing season and, however, keeping the water stress low during the first period of the same season. The aim of this paper is to analyze the soil moisture dynamics using a simple non-steady numerical ecohydrological model. The numerical model here proposed is able to reproduce soil moisture probability density function, obtained analytically in previous studies for different climates and soils in steady-state conditions; consequently it can be used to compute both the soil moisture time-profile and the vegetation static water stress time-profile in non-steady conditions. Here the differences between the steady-analytical and the non-steady numerical probability density functions are analyzed, showing how the proposed numerical model is able to capture the effects of winter recharge on the soil moisture. The dynamic water stress is also numerically evaluated, implicitly taking into account the soil moisture condition at the beginning of the growing season. It is also shown the role of different annual climatic parameterizations on the soil moisture probability density function and on the vegetation water stress evaluation. The proposed model is applied to a case study characteristic of Mediterranean climate: the watershed of Eleuterio in Sicily (Italy).
Ecohydrology in Mediterranean areas: a numerical model to describe growing seasons out of phase with precipitations
D. Pumo,F. Viola,L. V. Noto
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The probabilistic description of soil moisture dynamics is a relatively new topic in hydrology. The most common ecohydrological models start from the soil water balance, a stochastic differential equation where the unknown quantity is the function of the soil moisture, depending both on spaces and time. Most of existing solutions in literature are obtained in a probabilistic framework and under steady-state condition; even if this last condition allows the analytical handling of the problem, it has considerably simplified the problem by subtracting generalities from it. The steady-state hypothesis, used in many ecohydrological works, appears perfectly applicable in arid and semiarid climatic areas like those of African's or middle American's savannas, but it seems to be no more valid in areas with Mediterranean climate, where, notoriously, the wet season foregoes the growing season, thus recharging the soil moisture. This initial condition, especially for deep rooted vegetation, has a great importance by enabling survival in absence of rainfalls during the growing season and, however, keeping the water stress low during its first period. The aim of this paper is to investigate the soil moisture dynamics using a simple non-steady numerical ecohydrological model. The numerical model is able to reproduce soil moisture probability density function, obtained analytically in previous studies for different climate and soil conditions in steady state conditions. The proposed model gives both the soil moisture time-profile and the vegetation static water stress time-profile. From the former it is possible to extract the probability density function of soil-moisture during the whole growing season, while the latter allows the estimation of the vegetation response to the water stress. Here the differences between the analytical and the numerical probability density functions are presented, showing how the numerical model is able to capture the effects of winter recharge on the soil moisture. The dynamic water stress is numerically evaluated, implicitly taking into account the soil moisture condition at the beginning of the growing season. The model proposed here is applied in the forested river basin of the Eleuterio in Sicily (Italy).
Neuropathological Changes in Hydrocephalus—A Comprehensive Review  [PDF]
Domenico L. Di Curzio
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2018.81001
Abstract: Hydrocephalus is a heterogeneous, neurological condition characterized by altered flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that can occur at any age. Neuropathological changes associated with hydrocephalus are dependent on the age of onset, rate of ventricular enlargement, and the etiology. Hydrocephalic brain damage is also influenced by contributions from both mechanical forces and metabolic changes, which increases the heterogeneity of the condition. However, as ventriculomegaly progresses, the surrounding brain tissue is compressed within the cranial vault, elevating intracranial pressure and eventually leading to severe brain damage. From this perspective, it makes sense that periventricular brain regions are the initial sites of damage as ventricular dilatation occurs. The following review of neuropathological changes in hydrocephalus will first discuss cellular and region specific damage from the ventricles and outward towards the cortex and brainstem. This will be followed by vascular and hypoxic changes associated with the condition. Both types of brain impairments are dependent on the severity of the condition, and they will be described accordingly.
Animal Models of Hydrocephalus  [PDF]
Domenico L. Di Curzio
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2018.81004
Abstract:

Hydrocephalus is a neurological condition characterized by altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow leading to an accumulation of CSF inside the cranial vault. Neuropathogenesis associated with hydrocephalus has been elucidated by pathological studies of human brains and through experimental and genetic animal models. Experimental animal models have been developed in numerous species using a variety of methods and agents to induce hydrocephalus or through genetic mutations in rodents. Each of these animal models has been described briefly in this review, along with the basic strengths and weaknesses of each model. Although none of these models can fully mimic the human condition, they each provide fundamental knowledge contributing to understanding more about the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus and its underlying causes.

Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily
F. Viola, L. V. Noto, M. Cannarozzo,G. La Loggia
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behavior of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analyzed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.
Physically based modeling of rainfall-triggered landslides: a case study in the Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico
C. Lepore,E. Arnone,L. V. Noto,G. Sivandran
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-10-1333-2013
Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rainfall-triggered landslide module within a physically based spatially distributed ecohydrologic model. The model, Triangulated Irregular Networks Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator and VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution (tRIBS-VEGGIE), is capable of a sophisticated description of many hydrological processes; in particular, the soil moisture dynamics is resolved at a temporal and spatial resolution required to examine the triggering mechanisms of rainfall-induced landslides. The validity of the tRIBS-VEGGIE model to a tropical environment is shown with an evaluation of its performance against direct observations made within the Luquillo Forest (the study area). The newly developed landslide module builds upon the previous version of the tRIBS landslide component. This new module utilizes a numerical solution to the Richards equation to better represent the time evolution of soil moisture transport through the soil column. Moreover, the new landslide module utilizes an extended formulation of the Factor of Safety (FS) to correctly quantify the role of matric suction in slope stability and to account for unsaturated conditions in the evaluation of FS. The new modeling framework couples the capabilities of the detailed hydrologic model to describe soil moisture dynamics with the Infinite Slope model creating a powerful tool for the assessment of landslide risk.
Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily
F. Viola,L. V. Noto,M. Cannarozzo,G. La Loggia
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-7059-2010
Abstract: Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behaviour of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analysed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.
Rainfall statistics changes in Sicily
E. Arnone,D. Pumo,F. Viola,L. V. Noto
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-10-2323-2013
Abstract: Changes in rainfall characteristics are one of the most relevant signs of current climate alterations. Many studies have demonstrated an increase in rainfall intensity and a reduction of frequency in several areas of the world, including Mediterranean areas. Rainfall characteristics may be crucial for vegetation patterns formation and evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems, with important implications, for example, in vegetation water stress or coexistence and competition dynamics. At the same time, characteristics of extreme rainfall events are fundamental for the estimation of flood peaks and quantiles which can be used in many hydrological applications, such as design of the most common hydraulic structures, or planning and management of flood prone areas. In the past, Sicily has been screened for several signals of possible climate change. Annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall data in the entire Sicilian region have been analyzed, showing a global reduction of total annual rainfall. Moreover, annual maximum rainfall series for different durations have been rarely analyzed in order to detect the presence of trends. Results indicated that for short durations, historical series generally exhibit increasing trends while for longer durations the trends are mainly negative. Starting from these premises, the aim of this study is to investigate and quantify changes in rainfall statistics in Sicily, during the second half of the last century. Time series of about 60 stations over the region have been processed and screened by using the non parametric Mann–Kendall test. Particularly, extreme events have been analyzed using annual maximum rainfall series at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h duration while daily rainfall properties have been analyzed in term of frequency and intensity, also characterizing seasonal rainfall features. Results of extreme events analysis confirmed an increasing trend for rainfall of short durations, especially for one hour rainfall duration. Instead, precipitation of long durations have exhibited a decreased trend. With regard to the spatial distribution, increase in short duration precipitation has been observed especially in stations located along the coastline; however, no clear and well-defined spatial pattern have been outlined by the results. Outcomes of analysis for daily rainfall properties have showed that heavy-torrential precipitation tends to be more frequent at regional scale, while light rainfall events exhibited a negative trend at some sites. Values of total annual precipitations confirmed a significant negative trend, mainly due
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