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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208579 matches for " L. Camilleri "
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The Shaping of Inquiry: Histories of the Exact Sciences after the Practical Turn  [PDF]
Kristian Camilleri
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.42008
Abstract: In this paper I examine three emergent trends in praxis-oriented historiography that have underpinned historical studies of the exact sciences covering the period from 1750 to 1960. The first of these refers to what I call “tradition-centred” histories of scientific practice. This approach focuses on the formation of “cultures of practice” characterized by distinctive epistemic styles, which distinguish them from other such cultures. The second involves “tool-centred” histories of practice. This approach focuses on the way in which tools and techniques of inquiry open up new fields of inquiry, and the way in which the crafting of new tools and the refashioning of existing ones shape the dynamics of scientific practice. The third approach I examine relates to “actor-centred” histories, which typically take the form of biographical accounts focusing on the motivations, judgments and choices of individuals that shape scientific inquiry. This provide a useful analytic framework, in piecing together a broad picture of the different ways in which scientific inquiry is shaped and structured, and to see more clearly how different historiographical approaches complement one another in enriching our understanding of scientific practice.
Une nouvelle ère de la phénoménologie de la religion ? Sur les récents travaux de Natalie Depraz et Anthony J. Steinbock
Sylvain Camilleri
Meta : Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology and Practical Philosophy , 2012,
Abstract: Phenomenology of religion is among the oldest branches of the discipline founded by Husserl. It has always been difficult to define its outlines: from the very first essays of Scheler, Reinach and Heidegger to the so-called “theological turn” of French phenomenology, one has always feared the transformation of the phenomenology of religion in a religious philosophy that would give up the sacred principle of neutrality. This situation is perhaps behind us thanks to the recent endeavors to renew the field of research. French and American specialists of Husserl’s thought Natalie Depraz and Anthony J. Steinbock try to push back the limits of and to explore new ways in genetic phenomenology by describing religious attitudes by mean of a philosophical-existential methodology especially designed for this task. This paper introduces what might open of a new era of the phenomenology of religion.
The chemical composition of mineral trioxide aggregate
Camilleri Josette
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2008,
Abstract: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is composed of Portland cement, with 4:1 addition of bismuth oxide added so that the material can be detected on a radiograph. The cement is made up of calcium, silicon and aluminium. The main constituent phases are tricalcium and dicalcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate. There are two commercial forms of MTA, namely the grey and the white. The difference between the grey and the white materials is the presence of iron in the grey material, which makes up the phase tetracalcium alumino-ferrite. This phase is absent in white MTA. Hydration of MTA occurs in two stages. The initial reaction between tricalcium aluminate and water in the presence of calcium sulphate results in the production of ettringite. Tricalcium and dicalcium silicate react with water to produce calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide, which is leached out of the cement with time.
The Initial Implementation of the Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) for Breast Cancer Management in Malta  [PDF]
Camilleri Gail, Borg Grima Karen, Zarb Francis
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.43093
Abstract:

Over the past two decades, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) based on sentinel node (SN) being the first lymph node that harbors metastases, revolutionized breast cancer management. SLNB presents much less morbidity when compared to radical axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) where all nodes are dissected irrespective of their metastatic involvement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SLNB by investigating whether the histological characteristics of the SNs identified using scintigraphy are predictive of the histological characteristics of the ALN basin. Methods: Fifty-five female breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLNB followed by ALND. The histological status of the SN/s was correlated to the histological status of the ALNs to determine whether the SN accurately stages the ALNs in breast cancer. Results: During surgery, SNs were successfully isolated in 52 out of 55 cases (94.5%) (range, 0 to 9). No SNs were identified in 3 cases (5.5%). Results demonstrate a significant association (p = 0.05) between the metastatic status of SNs and the corresponding ALNs in 42 out of 52 patients (80.8%), but with a high false-negative rate (FNR) of 37.5%. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the sentinel node concept provides the benefits of SLNB in the majority of instances. However, further work is required in reducing the FNR. Once the effectiveness of SLNB as a staging technique is locally established, the need of ALND in SN-negative patients would be limited, thus improving the quality of life of Maltese breast cancer patients.

Physics opportunities with future proton accelerators at CERN
A. Blondel,L. Camilleri,A. Ceccucci,J. Ellis,M. Lindroos,M. Mangano,G. Rolandi
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We analyze the physics opportunities that would be made possible by upgrades of CERN's proton accelerator complex. These include the new physics possible with luminosity or energy upgrades of the LHC, options for a possible future neutrino complex at CERN, and opportunities in other physics including rare kaon decays, other fixed-target experiments, nuclear physics and antiproton physics, among other possibilities. We stress the importance of inputs from initial LHC running and planned neutrino experiments, and summarize the principal detector R&D issues.
The Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) and HPV DNA Testing
G. Camilleri,R. Blundell
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The fact that some viruses act as carcinogens has long since been known. Amongst these viruses are some genotypes of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs). HPV is most frequently associated with cervical cancer, that is, cancer of the cervix or neck of the uterus. In fact, 95-100% of all cervical cancers are caused by infection with HPV. HPV also causes a high proportion of other anogenital cancers. In 1995, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that HPV types 16 and 18 are carcinogenic to humans; HPV types 31 and 33 are probably carcinogenic to humans whilst some HPV types other than 16, 18, 31 and 33 are possibly carcinogenic to humans. This review focuses first on the structure, classification and genome of these particular viruses. Particular attention is given to those features that play a role in the carcinogenicity of particular HPV genotypes. Given the close association between HPV and cervical cancer, detecting the presence of HPV in a particular patient and more specifically, the presence of particular genotypes of HPV, may give an indication of the likelihood of progression to precancerous and cancerous changes in the cervix. In fact, there is much evidence that screening of women with both cytology and HPV DNA tests increases sensitivity for detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) 3 or cancer sufficiently to permit longer screening intervals than with cytology alone. However, it is important to realize that the presence of HPV does not mean that a woman has or will develop cervical disease. Thus, there is still a dilemma as regards the real utility of HPV DNA testing. Screening and diagnostic procedures for cervical cancer will be discussed in the second part of this review, with special emphasis on HPV DNA testing. The benefits of HPV DNA testing in specific situations will be highlighted, particularly in the case of a diagnosis of Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS).
Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease and Cervical Carcinoma
G. Camilleri,R. Blundell
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Until a few years ago cervical cancer was one of the commonest type of cancer in women worldwide. Its incidence decreased dramatically following the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear as a screening procedure. The Pap smear can detect a wide range of abnormalities of the cervix from benign cellular changes to precancerous conditions. Part of this review, will focus on this issue, specifically the abnormal and/or possibly precancerous findings that can be found in a Pap smear result. These will be classified according to the Bethesda system. One must emphasize here that most of these abnormalities regress on their own and do not need specific treatment. Yet, findings like the High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL) have a high rate of progression to cancer and necessitate immediate management. The other half of this review will focus on cervical cancer in itself, a malignant and therefore invasive disease which, like all other cancers, can be fatal if left untreated. The extent of spread of the cancer is determined by the staging system, here described according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Staging is an important means of evaluating the treatment plans used.
Gauche et droite en France au travers des élections présidentielles 1974, 1981, 1988, 1995
Gérard CAMILLERI
Mappemonde , 1996,
Abstract: Une analyse des quatre dernières élections présidentielles (1974, 1981, 1988, 1995) fait ressortir une bonne stabilité des rapports de force entre gauche et droite, alors que les implantations géographiques traditionnelles tendent sensiblement à se modifier.
The quantum-to-classical transition: Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts, emergent classicality, and decoherence
Maximilian Schlosshauer,Kristian Camilleri
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: It is now widely accepted that environmental entanglement and the resulting decoherence processes play a crucial role in the quantum-to-classical transition and the emergence of "classicality" from quantum mechanics. To this extent, decoherence is often understood as signifying a break with the Copenhagen interpretation, and in particular with Bohr's view of the indispensability of classical concepts. This paper analyzes the relationship between Bohr's understanding of the quantum-classical divide and his doctrine of classical concepts and the decoherence-based program of emergent classicality. By drawing on Howard's reconstruction of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts, and by paying careful attention to a hitherto overlooked disagreement between Heisenberg and Bohr in the 1930s about the placement of the quantum-classical "cut," we show that Bohr's view of the quantum-classical divide can be physically justified by appealing to decoherence. We also discuss early anticipations of the role of the environment in the quantum-classical problem in Heisenberg's writings. Finally, we distinguish four different formulations of the doctrine of classical concepts in an effort to present a more nuanced assessment of the relationship between Bohr's views and decoherence that challenges oversimplified statements frequently found in the literature.
What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts
Maximilian Schlosshauer,Kristian Camilleri
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3567426
Abstract: Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum -- for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper, we'll try to shed some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy mingle. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's takes on the quantum-classical problem and reflect on the different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classicality and Bohr's classical concepts.
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