Abstract:
The burst search in LIGO relies on the coincident detection of transient signals in multiple interferometers. As only minimal assumptions are made about the event waveform or duration, the analysis pipeline requires loose coincidence in time, frequency and amplitude. Confidence in the resulting events and their waveform consistency is established through a time-domain coherent analysis: the r-statistic test. This paper presents a performance study of the r-statistic test for triple coincidence events in the second LIGO Science Run (S2), with emphasis on its ability to suppress the background false rate and its efficiency at detecting simulated bursts of different waveforms close to the S2 sensitivity curve.

Abstract:
In this article we study two problems that arise when using timing and amplitude estimates from a network of interferometers (IFOs) to evaluate the direction of an incident gravitational wave burst (GWB). First, we discuss an angular bias in the least squares timing-based approach that becomes increasingly relevant for moderate to low signal-to-noise ratios. We show how estimates of the arrival time uncertainties in each detector can be used to correct this bias. We also introduce a stand alone parameter estimation algorithm that can improve the arrival time estimation and provide root-sum-squared strain amplitude (hrss) values for each site. In the second part of the paper we discuss how to resolve the directional ambiguity that arises from observations in three non co-located interferometers between the true source location and its mirror image across the plane containing the detectors. We introduce a new, exact relationship among the hrss values at the three sites that, for sufficiently large signal amplitudes, determines the true source direction regardless of whether or not the signal is linearly polarized. Both the algorithm estimating arrival times, arrival time uncertainties, and hrss values and the directional follow-up can be applied to any set of gravitational wave candidates observed in a network of three non co-located interferometers. As a case study we test the methods on simulated waveforms embedded in simulations of the noise of the LIGO and Virgo detectors at design sensitivity.

Abstract:
We calculated the expected neutrino signal in Borexino from a typical Type II supernova at a distance of 10 kpc. A burst of around 110 events would appear in Borexino within a time interval of about 10 s. Most of these events would come from the reaction channel $\bar{\nu}_e+p\to e^++n$, while about 30 events would be induced by the interaction of the supernova neutrino flux on $^{12}$C in the liquid scintillator. Borexino can clearly distinguish between the neutral-current excitations $^{12}{C}(\nu,\nu')^{12}{C}^*$(15.11 MeV) and the charged-current reactions $^{12}{C}(\nu_e,e^-)^{12}{N}$ and $^{12}{C}(\bar{\nu}_e,e^+)^{12}{B}$, via their distinctive event signatures. The ratio of the charged-current to neutral-current neutrino event rates and their time profiles with respect to each other can provide a handle on supernova and non-standard neutrino physics (mass and flavor oscillations).

Abstract:
The quest for gravitational waves from coalescing binaries is customarily performed by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration via matched filtering, which requires a detailed knowledge of the signal. Complete analytical coalescence waveforms are currently available only for the non-precessing binary systems. In this paper we introduce complete phenomenological waveforms for the dominant quadrupolar mode of generically spinning systems. These waveforms are constructed by bridging the gap between the analytically known inspiral phase, described by spin Taylor (T4) approximants in the restricted waveform approximation, and the ring-down phase through a phenomenological intermediate phase, calibrated by comparison with specific, numerically generated waveforms, describing equal mass systems with dimension-less spin magnitudes equal to 0.6. The overlap integral between numerical and phenomenological waveforms ranges between 0.95 and 0.99.

Abstract:
An accurate knowledge of the coalescing binary gravitational waveform is crucial for experimental searches as the ones performed by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration. Following an earlier paper by the same authors we refine the construction of analytical phenomenological waveforms describing the signal sourced by generically spinning binary systems. The gap between the initial inspiral part of the waveform, described by spin-Taylor approximants, and its final ring-down part, described by damped exponentials, is bridged by a phenomenological phase calibrated by comparison with the dominant spherical harmonic mode of a set of waveforms including both numerical and phenomenological waveforms of different type. All waveforms considered describe equal mass systems. The Advanced LIGO noise-weighted overlap integral between the numerical and phenomenological waveforms presented here ranges between 0.95 and 0.99 for a wide span of mass values.

Abstract:
The equation of state plays a critical role in the physics of the merger of two neutron stars. Recent numerical simulations with microphysical equation of state suggest the outcome of such events depends on the mass of the neutron stars. For less massive systems, simulations favor the formation of a hypermassive, quasi-stable neutron star, whose oscillations produce a short, high frequency burst of gravitational radiation. Its dominant frequency content is tightly correlated with the radius of the neutron star, and its measurement can be used to constrain the supranuclear equation of state. In contrast, the merger of higher mass systems results in prompt gravitational collapse to a black hole. We have developed an algorithm which combines waveform reconstruction from a morphology-independent search for gravitational wave transients with Bayesian model selection, to discriminate between post-merger scenarios and accurately measure the dominant oscillation frequency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method using a catalogue of simulated binary merger signals in data from LIGO and Virgo, and we discuss the prospects for this analysis in advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors. From the waveforms considered in this work and assuming an optimally oriented source, we find that the post-merger neutron star signal may be detectable by this technique to $\sim 10\text{--}25$\,Mpc. We also find that we successfully discriminate between the post-merger scenarios with $\sim 95\%$ accuracy and determine the dominant oscillation frequency of surviving post-merger neutron stars to within $\sim 10$\,Hz, averaged over all detected signals. This leads to an uncertainty in the estimated radius of a non-rotating 1.6\,M$_{\odot}$ reference neutron star of $\sim 100\,$m.

Abstract:
We discuss the science motivations and prospects for a joint analysis of gravitational-wave (GW) and low-energy neutrino data to search for prompt signals from nearby supernovae (SNe). Both gravitational-wave and low-energy neutrinos are expected to be produced in the innermost region of a core-collapse supernova, and a search for coincident signals would probe the processes which power a supernova explosion. It is estimated that the current generation of neutrino and gravitational-wave detectors would be sensitive to Galactic core-collapse supernovae, and would also be able to detect electromagnetically dark SNe. A joint GW-neutrino search would enable improvements to searches by way of lower detection thresholds, larger distance range, better live-time coverage by a network of GW and neutrino detectors, and increased significance of candidate detections. A close collaboration between the GW and neutrino communities for such a search will thus go far toward realizing a much sought-after astrophysics goal of detecting the next nearby supernova.

Abstract:
Gravitational Wave (GW) burst detection algorithms typically rely on the hypothesis that the burst signal is "locally stationary", that is it changes slowly with frequency. Under this assumption, the signal can be decomposed into a small number of wavelets with constant frequency. This justifies the use of a family of sine-Gaussian templates in the Omega pipeline, one of the algorithms used in LIGO-Virgo burst searches. However there are plausible scenarios where the burst frequency evolves rapidly, such as in the merger phase of a binary black hole and/or neutron star coalescence. In those cases, the local stationarity of sine-Gaussians induces performance losses, due to the mismatch between the template and the actual signal. We propose an extension of the Omega pipeline based on chirplet-like templates. Chirplets incorporate an additional parameter, the chirp rate, to control the frequency variation. In this paper, we show that the Omega pipeline can easily be extended to include a chirplet template bank. We illustrate the method on a simulated data set, with a family of phenomenological binary black-hole coalescence waveforms embedded into Gaussian LIGO/Virgo-like noise. Chirplet-like templates result in an enhancement of the measured signal-to-noise ratio.

Abstract:
The gravitational wave (GW) signature of a binary black hole (BBH) coalescence is characterized by rapid frequency evolution in the late inspiral and merger phases. For a system with total mass larger than 100 M_sun, ground based GW detectors are sensitive to the merger phase, and the in-band whitened waveform is a short-duration transient lasting about 10-30 ms. For a symmetric mass system with total mass between 10 and 100 M_sun, the detector is sensitive instead to the inspiral phase and the in-band signal has a longer duration, between 30 ms - 3 s. Omega is a search algorithm for GW bursts that, with the assumption of locally stationary frequency evolution, uses sine-Gaussian wavelets as a template bank to decompose interferometer strain data. The local stationarity of sine-Gaussians induces a performance loss for the detection of lower mass BBH signatures, due to the mismatch between template and signal. We present the performance of a modified version of the Omega algorithm, Chirplet Omega, which allows a linear variation of frequency, to target BBH coalescences. The use of Chirplet-like templates enhances the measured signal-to-noise ratio due to less mismatch between template and data, and increases the detectability of lower mass BBH coalescences. We present the results of a performance study of Chirplet Omega in colored Gaussian noise at initial LIGO sensitivity.

Abstract:
The LIGO detectors are sensitive to a variety of noise transients of non-astrophysical origin. Instrumental glitches and environmental disturbances increase the false alarm rate in the searches for gravitational waves. Using times already identified when the interferometers produced data of questionable quality, or when the channels that monitor the interferometer indicated non-stationarity, we have developed techniques to safely and effectively veto false triggers from the compact binary coalescences (CBCs) search pipeline.