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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208535 matches for " L. Cabaret "
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Performance of Serum Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Febrile, Neutropenic Patients: A Multi-State Model
Micha?l Schwarzinger, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Odile Cabaret, Stéphane Bretagne, Catherine Cordonnier, for the PREVERT Investigators
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065776
Abstract: Background The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis expectedly depends on the timing of test results relative to the empirical administration of antifungal therapy during neutropenia, although a dynamic evaluation framework is lacking. Methods We developed a multi-state model describing simultaneously the likelihood of empirical antifungal therapy and the risk of invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia. We evaluated whether the first positive test result with a biomarker is an independent predictor of invasive aspergillosis when both diagnostic information used to treat and risk factors of developing invasive aspergillosis are taken into account over time. We applied the multi-state model to a homogeneous cohort of 185 high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients were prospectively screened for galactomannan antigenemia twice a week for immediate treatment decision; 2,214 serum samples were collected on the same days and blindly assessed for (1->3)- β-D-glucan antigenemia and a quantitative PCR assay targeting a mitochondrial locus. Results The usual evaluation framework of biomarker performance was unable to distinguish clinical benefits of β-glucan or PCR assays. The multi-state model evidenced that the risk of invasive aspergillosis is a complex time function of neutropenia duration and risk management. The quantitative PCR assay accelerated the early detection of invasive aspergillosis (P = .010), independently of other diagnostic information used to treat, while β-glucan assay did not (P = .53). Conclusions The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis is better apprehended by the evaluation of time-varying predictors in a multi-state model. Our results provide strong rationale for prospective studies testing a preemptive antifungal therapy, guided by clinical, radiological, and bi-weekly blood screening with galactomannan antigenemia and a standardized quantitative PCR assay.
Determinacion de las relaciones polimorficas entre Teladorsagia circumcincta (Stadelmann, 1894) y Teladorsagia trifurcata (Ransom, 1907) en condiciones experimentales
Morales, G.;Cabaret, J.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1985, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761985000100013
Abstract: it is shown in this study that two species of nematodes: teladorsagia circumcincta (stadelmann, 1894) and t. trifurcata (ransom, 1907), (nemátoda, trichostrongylidae, subfamily ostertagiinae), have a similar range of host species. furthermore, the abscence of reproductive barriers, as well as the fact that both forms soon reach stable proportions in the host population, indicate that t. trifurcata is a morph of t. circumcincta.
Investigation of Acetylcholine Receptor Diversity in a Nematode Parasite Leads to Characterization of Tribendimidine- and Derquantel-Sensitive nAChRs
Samuel K. Buxton equal contributor,Claude L. Charvet equal contributor,Cedric Neveu,Jacques Cabaret,Jacques Cortet,Nicolas Peineau,Melanie Abongwa,Elise Courtot,Alan P. Robertson,Richard J. Martin
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003870
Abstract: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of parasitic nematodes are required for body movement and are targets of important “classical” anthelmintics like levamisole and pyrantel, as well as “novel” anthelmintics like tribendimidine and derquantel. Four biophysical subtypes of nAChR have been observed electrophysiologically in body muscle of the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum, but their molecular basis was not understood. Additionally, loss of one of these subtypes (G 35 pS) was found to be associated with levamisole resistance. In the present study, we identified and expressed in Xenopus oocytes, four O. dentatum nAChR subunit genes, Ode-unc-38, Ode-unc-63, Ode-unc-29 and Ode-acr-8, to explore the origin of the receptor diversity. When different combinations of subunits were injected in Xenopus oocytes, we reconstituted and characterized four pharmacologically different types of nAChRs with different sensitivities to the cholinergic anthelmintics. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptor diversity may be affected by the stoichiometric arrangement of the subunits. We show, for the first time, different combinations of subunits from a parasitic nematode that make up receptors sensitive to tribendimidine and derquantel. In addition, we report that the recombinant levamisole-sensitive receptor made up of Ode-UNC-29, Ode-UNC-63, Ode-UNC-38 and Ode-ACR-8 subunits has the same single-channel conductance, 35 pS and 2.4 ms mean open-time properties, as the levamisole-AChR (G35) subtype previously identified in vivo. These data highlight the flexible arrangements of the receptor subunits and their effects on sensitivity and resistance to the cholinergic anthelmintics; pyrantel, tribendimidine and/or derquantel may still be effective on levamisole-resistant worms.
Effect of vibrations on the pre-edge features of x-ray absorption spectra
Christian Brouder,Delphine Cabaret,Amélie Juhin,Philippe Sainctavit
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.115125
Abstract: The influence of atomic vibrations on x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is calculated by assuming that vibrational energies are small with respect to the instrumental resolution. The resulting expression shows that, at the K-edge, vibrations enable electric dipole transitions to 3s and 3d final states. The theory is applied to the K-edge of Al in Al2O3 corundum and of Ti in TiO2 rutile and compared with experiment. At the Al K-edge, sizeable transitions towards 3s final states are obtained, leading to a clear improvement of the agreement with experimental spectra. At the Ti K-edge, electric dipole transitions towards 3d final states explain the temperature dependence of the pre-edge features.
X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure calculations with pseudopotentials. Application to K-edge in diamond and alpha-quartz
Mathieu Taillefumier,Delphine Cabaret,Anne-Marie Flank,Francesco Mauri
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.195107
Abstract: We present a reciprocal-space pseudopotential scheme for calculating X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra. The scheme incorporates a recursive method to compute absorption cross section as a continued fraction. The continued fraction formulation of absorption is advantageous in that it permits the treatment of core-hole interaction through large supercells (hundreds of atoms). The method is compared with recently developed Bethe-Salpeter approach. The method is applied to the carbon K-edge in diamond and to the silicon and oxygen K-edges in alpha-quartz for which polarized XANES spectra were measured. Core-hole effects are investigated by varying the size of the supercell, thus leading to information similar to that obtained from cluster size analysis usually performed within multiple scattering calculations.
Structural relaxation around substitutional Cr3+ in pyrope garnet
Amélie Juhin,Georges Calas,Delphine Cabaret,Laurence Galoisy,Jean-Louis Hazemann
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: The structural environment of substitutional Cr3+ ion in a natural pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12 has been investigated by Cr K-edge Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) coupled with first-principles computations. The Cr-O distance is close to that in knorringite Mg3Cr2Si3O12, indicating a full relaxation of the first neighbors. The local C3i symmetry of the octahedral Y site is retained during Cr-Al substitution. The second and third shells of neighbors (Mg and Si) relax only partially. Site relaxation is accommodated by strain-induced bond buckling, with angular tilts of the Si-centered tetrahedra around the Cr-centered octahedron, and by a radial deformation of the Mg-centered dodecahedra.
Experimental evidence of thermal fluctuations on the X-ray absorption near-edge structure at the aluminum K-edge
Damien Manuel,Delphine Cabaret,Christian Brouder,Philippe Sainctavit,Amélie Bordage,Nicolas Trcera
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.224108
Abstract: After a review of temperature-dependent experimental x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and related theoretical developments, we present the Al K-edge XANES spectra of corundum and beryl for temperature ranging from 300K to 930K. These experimental results provide a first evidence of the role of thermal fluctuation in XANES at the Al K-edge especially in the pre-edge region. The study is carried out by polarized XANES measurements of single crystals. For any orientation of the sample with respect to the x-ray beam, the pre-edge peak grows and shifts to lower energy with temperature. In addition temperature induces modifications in the position and intensities of the main XANES features. First-principles DFT calculations are performed for both compounds. They show that the pre-edge peak originates from forbidden 1s to 3s transitions induced by vibrations. Three existing theoretical models are used to take vibrations into account in the absorption cross section calculations: i) an average of the XANES spectra over the thermal displacements of the absorbing atom around its equilibrium position, ii) a method based on the crude Born-Oppenheimer approximation where only the initial state is averaged over thermal displacements, iii) a convolution of the spectra obtained for the atoms at the equilibrium positions with an approximate phonon spectral function. The theoretical spectra so obtained permit to qualitatively understand the origin of the spectral modifications induced by temperature. However the correct treatment of thermal fluctuation in XANES spectroscopy requires more sophisticated theoretical tools.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves
J. Cabaret,P. Béquin,G. Theocharis,V. Andreev,V. E. Gusev,V. Tournat
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.054301
Abstract: We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities, and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other type of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short term memory as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
Structural relaxation around substitutional Cr3+ in MgAl2O4
Am{é}lie Juhin,Georges Calas,Delphine Cabaret,Laurence Galoisy,Jean-Louis Hazemann
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.054105
Abstract: The structural environment of substitutional Cr3+ ion in MgAl2O4 spinel has been investigated by Cr K-edge Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopies. First-principles computations of the structural relaxation and of the XANES spectrum have been performed, with a good agreement to the experiment. The Cr-O distance is close to that in MgCr2O4, indicating a full relaxation of the first neighbors, and the second shell of Al atoms relaxes partially. These observations demonstrate that Vegard's law is not obeyed in the MgAl2O4-MgCr2O4 solid solution. Despite some angular site distortion, the local D3d symmetry of the B-site of the spinel structure is retained during the substitution of Cr for Al. Here, we show that the relaxation is accomodated by strain-induced bond buckling, with angular tilts of the Mg-centred tetrahedra around the Cr-centred octahedron. By contrast, there is no significant alteration of the angles between the edge-sharing octahedra, which build chains aligned along the three four-fold axes of the cubic structure.
Structural relaxations around Ti, Cr and Fe impurities in alpha-Al2O3 probed by x-ray absorption near edge structure combined with first-principles calculations
Emilie Gaudry,Delphine Cabaret,Philippe Sainctavit,Christian Brouder,Francesco Mauri,José Goulon,Andrei Rogalev
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/17/36/003
Abstract: We determine the structural relaxations around paramagnetic impurities (Ti, Cr, Fe) in corundum (alpha-Al2O3), by combining x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) experiments and ab initio calculations. The structural relaxations are found to be very local. We then show that XANES is sensitive to small variations in interatomic distances within the coordination shell of the absorbing atom. The experiments were carried out on single crystals of ruby and sapphires. Linear dichroic signals are essential to characterize the geometry of the impurity site. The calculations were performed within a self-consistent ``non muffin-tin'' framework, that uses pseudopotentials, plane-wave basis set, and the continued fraction for the absorption cross section.
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