Abstract:
Quantum search algorithms are considered in the context of protein sequence comparison in biocomputing. Given a sample protein sequence of length m (i.e m residues), the problem considered is to find an optimal match in a large database containing N residues. Initially, Grover's quantum search algorithm is applied to a simple illustrative case - namely where the database forms a complete set of states over the 2^m basis states of a m qubit register, and thus is known to contain the exact sequence of interest. This example demonstrates explicitly the typical O(sqrt{N}) speedup on the classical O(N) requirements. An algorithm is then presented for the (more realistic) case where the database may contain repeat sequences, and may not necessarily contain an exact match to the sample sequence. In terms of minimizing the Hamming distance between the sample sequence and the database subsequences the algorithm finds an optimal alignment, in O(sqrt{N}) steps, by employing an extension of Grover's algorithm, due to Boyer, Brassard, Hoyer and Tapp for the case when the number of matches is not a priori known.

Abstract:
We calculate the electronic wave-function for a phosphorus donor in silicon by numerical diagonalisation of the donor Hamiltonian in the basis of the pure crystal Bloch functions. The Hamiltonian is calculated at discrete points localised around the conduction band minima in the reciprocal lattice space. Such a technique goes beyond the approximations inherent in the effective-mass theory, and can be modified to include the effects of altered donor impurity potentials, externally applied electro-static potentials, as well as the effects of lattice strain. Modification of the donor impurity potential allows the experimentally known low-lying energy spectrum to be reproduced with good agreement, as well as the calculation of the donor wavefunction, which can then be used to calculate parameters important to quantum computing applications.

Abstract:
We examine a stochastic noise process that has a decohering effect on the average evolution of qubits in the quantum register of the solid state quantum computer proposed by Kane. We consider the effects of this process on the single qubit operations necessary to perform quantum logical gates and derive an expression for the fidelity of these gates in this system. We then calculate an upper bound on the level of this stochastic noise tolerable in a workable quantum computer.

Abstract:
The use of qubits as sensitive magnetometers has been studied theoretically and recent demonstrated experimentally. In this paper we propose a generalisation of this concept, where a scanning two-state quantum system is used to probe the subtle effects of decoherence (as well as its surrounding electromagnetic environment). Mapping both the Hamiltonian and decoherence properties of a qubit simultaneously, provides a unique image of the magnetic (or electric) field properties at the nanoscale. The resulting images are sensitive to the temporal as well as spatial variation in the fields created by the sample. As an example we theoretically study two applications of this technology; one from condensed matter physics, the other biophysics. The individual components required to realise the simplest version of this device (characterisation and measurement of qubits, nanoscale positioning) have already been demonstrated experimentally.

Abstract:
A quantum version of the Minority game for an arbitrary number of agents is considered. It is known that when the number of agents is odd, quantizing the game produces no advantage to the players, but for an even number of agents new Nash equilibria appear that have no classical analogue and have improved payoffs. We study the effect on the Nash equilibrium payoff of various forms of decoherence. As the number of players increases the multipartite GHZ state becomes increasingly fragile, as indicated by the smaller error probability required to reduce the Nash equilibrium payoff to the classical level.

Abstract:
Using an open quantum system we calculate the time dependence of the concurrence between two maximally entangled electron spins with one accelerated uniformly in the presence of a constant magnetic field and the other at rest and isolated from fields. We find at high Rindler temperature the proper time for the entanglement to be extinguished is proportional to the inverse of the acceleration cubed.

Abstract:
A closed form expression for the ground state energy density of the general extensive many-body problem is given in terms of the Lanczos tri-diagonal form of the Hamiltonian. Given the general expressions of the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian Lanczos matrix, $\alpha_n(N)$ and $\beta_n(N)$, asymptotic forms $\alpha(z)$ and $\beta(z)$ can be defined in terms of a new parameter $z\equiv n/N$ ($n$ is the Lanczos iteration and $N$ is the size of the system). By application of theorems on the zeros of orthogonal polynomials we find the ground-state energy density in the bulk limit to be given in general by ${\cal E}_0 = {\rm inf}\,\left[\alpha(z) - 2\,\beta(z)\right]$.

Abstract:
In the Eisert protocol for 2 X 2 quantum games [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3077], a number of authors have investigated the features arising from making the strategic space a two-parameter subset of single qubit unitary operators. We argue that the new Nash equilibria and the classical-quantum transitions that occur are simply an artifact of the particular strategy space chosen. By choosing a different, but equally plausible, two-parameter strategic space we show that different Nash equilibria with different classical-quantum transitions can arise. We generalize the two-parameter strategies and also consider these strategies in a multiplayer setting.

Abstract:
Typical circuit implementations of Shor's algorithm involve controlled rotation gates of magnitude $\pi/2^{2L}$ where $L$ is the binary length of the integer N to be factored. Such gates cannot be implemented exactly using existing fault-tolerant techniques. Approximating a given controlled $\pi/2^{d}$ rotation gate to within $\delta=O(1/2^{d})$ currently requires both a number of qubits and number of fault-tolerant gates that grows polynomially with $d$. In this paper we show that this additional growth in space and time complexity would severely limit the applicability of Shor's algorithm to large integers. Consequently, we study in detail the effect of using only controlled rotation gates with $d$ less than or equal to some $d_{\rm max}$. It is found that integers up to length $L_{\rm max} = O(4^{d_{\rm max}})$ can be factored without significant performance penalty implying that the cumbersome techniques of fault-tolerant computation only need to be used to create controlled rotation gates of magnitude $\pi/64$ if integers thousands of bits long are desired factored. Explicit fault-tolerant constructions of such gates are also discussed.

Abstract:
The method of iterated resolvents is used to obtain an effective Hamiltonian for neighbouring qubits in the Kane solid state quantum computer. In contrast to the adiabatic gate processes inherent in the Kane proposal we show that free evolution of the qubit-qubit system, as generated by this effective Hamiltonian, combined with single qubit operations, is sufficient to produce a controlled-NOT (c-NOT) gate. Thus the usual set of universal gates can be obtained on the Kane quantum computer without the need for adiabatic switching of the controllable parameters as prescribed by Kane. Both the fidelity and gate time of this non-adiabatic c-NOT gate are determined by numerical simulation.