Abstract:
The phase-space volume of regions of regular or trapped motion, for bounded or scattering systems with two degrees of freedom respectively, displays universal properties. In particular, drastic reductions in the volume (gaps) are observed at specific values of a control parameter. Using the stability resonances we show that they, and not the mean-motion resonances, account for the position of these gaps. For more degrees of freedom, exciting these resonances divides the regions of trapped motion. For planetary rings, we demonstrate that this mechanism yields rings with multiple components.

Abstract:
The phase--space volume of regions of regular or trapped motion, for bounded or scattering systems with two degrees of freedom respectively, displays universal properties. In particular, sudden reductions in the phase-space volume or gaps are observed at specific values of the parameter which tunes the dynamics; these locations are approximated by the stability resonances. The latter are defined by a resonant condition on the stability exponents of a central linearly stable periodic orbit. We show that, for more than two degrees of freedom, these resonances can be excited opening up gaps, which effectively separate and reduce the regions of trapped motion in phase space. Using the scattering approach to narrow rings and a billiard system as example, we demonstrate that this mechanism yields rings with two or more components. Arcs are also obtained, specifically when an additional (mean-motion) resonance condition is met. We obtain a complete representation of the phase-space volume occupied by the regions of trapped motion.

Abstract:
We address the occurrence of narrow planetary rings under the interaction with shepherds. Our approach is based on a Hamiltonian framework of non-interacting particles where open motion (escape) takes place, and includes the quasi-periodic perturbations of the shepherd's Kepler motion with small and zero eccentricity. We concentrate in the phase-space structure and establish connections with properties like the eccentricity, sharp edges and narrowness of the ring. Within our scattering approach, the organizing centers necessary for the occurrence of the rings are stable periodic orbits, or more generally, stable tori. In the case of eccentric motion of the shepherd, the rings are narrower and display a gap which defines different components of the ring.

Abstract:
We address the occurrence of narrow planetary rings and some of their structural properties, in particular when the rings are shepherded. We consider the problem as Hamiltonian {\it scattering} of a large number of non-interacting massless point particles in an effective potential. Using the existence of stable motion in scattering regions in this set up, we describe a mechanism in phase space for the occurrence of narrow rings and some consequences in their structure. We illustrate our approach with three examples. We find eccentric narrow rings displaying sharp edges, variable width and the appearance of distinct ring components (strands) which are spatially organized and entangled (braids). We discuss the relevance of our approach for narrow planetary rings.

Abstract:
Estudiamos la formación de planetas en un modelo sencillo de acreción planetaria (Laskar 2000), que incluye además restricciones físicas en la acreción y un proto-Júpiter inmerso en el disco protoplanetario. Los efectos locales en tiempos cortos aumentan la migración del Júpiter y generan distribuciones más anchas de la excentricidad. Estos procesos de tres cuerpos podrán explicar las altas excentricidades observadas en los planetas exosolares.

Abstract:
The embedded ensembles were introduced by Mon and French as physically more plausible stochastic models of many--body systems governed by one--and two--body interactions than provided by standard random--matrix theory. We review several approaches aimed at determining the spectral density, the spectral fluctuation properties, and the ergodic properties of these ensembles: moments methods, numerical simulations, the replica trick, the eigenvector decomposition of the matrix of second moments and supersymmetry, the binary correlation approximation, and the study of correlations between matrix elements.

Abstract:
In rotating scattering systems, the generic saddle-center scenario leads to stable islands in phase space. Non-interacting particles whose initial conditions are defined in such islands will be trapped and form rotating rings. This result is generic and also holds for systems quite different from planetary rings.

Abstract:
We propose a generic mechanism for the formation of narrow rings in rotating systems. For this purpose we use a system of discs rotating about a common center lying well outside the discs. A discussion of this system shows that narrow rings occur, if we assume non-interacting particles. A saddle-center bifurcation is responsible for the relevant appearance of elliptic regions in phase space, that will generally assume ring shapes in the synodic frame, which will suffer a precession in the sidereal frame. Finally we discuss possible applications of this mechanism and find that it may be relevant for planetary rings as well as for semi-classical considerations.

Abstract:
A characteristic feature of thermalized non-equilibrated matter is that, in spite of energy relaxation--equilibration, a phase memory of the way the many-body system was excited remains. As an example, we analyze data on a strong forward peaking of thermal proton yield in the Bi($\gamma$,p) photonuclear reaction. New analysis shows that the phase relaxation in highly-excited heavy nuclei can be 8 orders of magnitude or even much longer than the energy relaxation. We argue that thermalized non-equilibrated matter resembles a high temperature superconducting state in quantum many-body systems. We briefly present results on the time-dependent correlation function of the many-particle density fluctuations for such a superconducting state. It should be of interest to experimentally search for manifestations of thermalized non-equilibrated matter in many-body mesoscopic systems and nanostructures.