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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208660 matches for " L. Barlow-Mosha "
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Factors Determining Survival and Retention among HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents in a Community Home-Based Care and a Facility-Based Family-Centred Approach in Kampala, Uganda: A Cohort Study
W. Massavon,L. Barlow-Mosha,L. Mugenyi,W. McFarland,G. Gray,R. Lundin,P. Costenaro,M. M. Nannyonga,M. Penazzato,D. Bagenda,C. P. Namisi,D. Wabwire,M. Mubiru,S. Kironde,D. Bilardi,A. Mazza,M. G. Fowler,P. Musoke,C. Giaquinto
ISRN AIDS , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/852489
Abstract: We describe factors determining retention and survival among HIV-infected children and adolescents engaged in two health care delivery models in Kampala, Uganda: one is a community home-based care (CHBC) and the other is a facility-based family-centred approach (FBFCA). This retrospective cohort study reviewed records from children aged from 0 to 18 years engaged in the two models from 2003 to 2010 focussing on retention/loss to follow-up, mortality, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and clinical characteristics. Kaplan Meier survival curves with log rank tests were used to describe and compare retention and survival. Overall, 1,623 children were included, 90.0% (1460/1623) from the CHBC. Children completed an average of 4.2 years of follow-up (maximum 7.7 years). Median age was 53 (IQR: 11–109) months at enrolment. In the CHBC, retention differed significantly between patients on ART and those not (log-rank test, adjusted, ). Comparing ART patients in both models, there was no significant difference in long-term survival (log-rank test, , adjusted, ), while retention was higher in the CHBC: 94.8% versus 84.7% in the FBFCA (log-rank test, , adjusted ). Irrespective of model of care, children receiving ART had better retention in care and survival. 1. Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is home to the vast majority of infants, children, and adolescents living with HIV and morbidity and mortality remain high [1–3]. For example, mortality among HIV-infected children has been measured at 4.3% per year in East Africa and 8.3% in West Africa [4, 5]. A recent meta-analysis conducted in SSA reported a higher risk of early death among perinatally infected children [6]. Studies have also shown that substantial proportions of children and adolescents initiate treatment in SSA with advanced disease (46.3%–72.0%) and comorbidities such as tuberculosis (TB) (5.7%–34.0%) and malnutrition (33%–54%) that tend to be associated with early mortality and poor clinical outcomes [7–10]. Significant child mortality can be averted if antiretroviral therapy (ART) is started early [11–14]. However, despite overwhelming evidence demonstrating the benefits of ART, in practice high mortality and poor retention persist among HIV-infected children and adolescents in care in the resource-limited settings of SSA. In addition to scarce resources for programmes for children, the situation is compounded by a combination of factors including late HIV diagnosis, missed opportunities to initiate ART, health care programmes not tailored to the needs of the infected child and their family,
The long-term effectiveness of generic adult fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected Ugandan children
LN Barlow-Mosha, DS Bagenda, PK Mudiope, MC Mubiru, LM Butler, MG Fowler, PM Musoke
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Access to pediatric antiretroviral formulations is increasing in resource-limited countries, however adult FDCs are still commonly used by antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs. Objective: To describe long-term effectiveness of using adult FDC of d4T+3TC+NVP (Triomune) in children for HIV treatment. Methods: Clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes of HIV-infected ART-na ve children aged six months to 12 years, were evaluated up to 96 weeks post-ART initiation. Results: From March 2004 to June 2006, 104 children were followed with a median age of 5.4 years, median CD4 cell percent and HIV-1 RNA were 11.0% (IQR 6.7-13.9) and 348,846copies/mL (IQR 160,941-681,313) respectively at baseline. Using Kaplan-Meir estimates, 75% of children had undetectable viral loads (<400copies/mL) at 96weeks of ART. Children with a baseline CD4 cell percent >15% were 3 times more likely to achieve viral load <400copies/mL than those with baseline CD4 cell percent <5% after adjusting for baseline age {aHR = 3.03 (1.10-8.32), p=0.03}; no difference was found among those with CD4 cell percent >5-14.9% and <5%. Conclusion: Treatment with generic adult FDC for HIV-infected Ugandan children led to sustained clinical, immunologic and virologic response during 96 weeks of ART. Early initiation of ART is key to achieving virological success.
Growth, immune and viral responses in HIV infected African children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study
Philippa M Musoke, Peter Mudiope, Linda N Barlow-Mosha, Patrick Ajuna, Danstan Bagenda, Michael M Mubiru, Thorkild Tylleskar, Mary G Fowler
BMC Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-56
Abstract: A prospective cohort of HIV infected children were initiated on HAART and followed for 48 weeks. Body mass index for age z scores(BAZ), weight and height-for-age z scores (WAZ & HAZ) were calculated: CD4 cell % and HIV-1 RNA were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks. Treatment outcomes were classified according to; both virological and immunological success (VS/IS), virological failure and immunological success (VF/IS). virological success and immunological failure (VS/IF) and both virological and immunological failure (VF/IF).From March 2004 until May 2006, 124 HIV infected children were initiated on HAART. The median age (IQR) was 5.0 years (2.1 - 7.0) and 49% (61/124) were female. The median [95% confidence interval (CI)] BAZ, WAZ and HAZ at baseline were 0.29 (-2.9, -1.2), -1.2 (-2.1, -0.5) and -2.06 (-2.9, -1.2) respectively. Baseline median CD4 cell % and log10 HIV-1 RNA were; 11.8% (7.5-18.0) and 5.6 (5.2-5.8) copies/ml. By 48 weeks, mean WAZ and HAZ in the VF/IS group, which was younger, increased from - 0.98 (SD 1.7) to + 1.22 (SD 1.2) and from -1.99 (1.7) to + 0.76 (2.4) respectively. Mean increase in WAZ and HAZ in the VS/IF group, an older group was modest, from -1.84 (1.3) to - 0.41 (1.2) and -2.25 (1.2) to -1.16 (1.3) respectively. Baseline CD4 cell % [OR 6.97 95% CI (2.6 -18.6)], age [OR 4.6 95% CI (1.14 -19.1)] and WHO clinical stage [OR 3.5 95%CI (1.05 -12.7)] were associated with successful treatment outcome.HIV infected Ugandan children demonstrated a robust increase in height and weight z scores during the first 48 weeks of HAART, including those who failed to completely suppress virus. Older children initiating HAART with severe immune suppression were less likely to achieve a successful treatment outcome. These data emphasize the importance of initiating HAART early to ensure adequate immune and growth responses.Growth failure is a well recognized complication of HIV infection in children which can present as stunting, weight loss, failure t
Reorthogonalized Block Classical Gram--Schmidt
Jesse L. Barlow,Alicja Smoktunowicz
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: A new reorthogonalized block classical Gram--Schmidt algorithm is proposed that factorizes a full column rank matrix $A$ into $A=QR$ where $Q$ is left orthogonal (has orthonormal columns) and $R$ is upper triangular and nonsingular. With appropriate assumptions on the diagonal blocks of $R$, the algorithm, when implemented in floating point arithmetic with machine unit $\macheps$, produces $Q$ and $R$ such that $\| I- Q^{T} Q \|_2 =O(\macheps)$ and $\| A-QR \|_2 =O(\macheps \| A \|_2)$. The resulting bounds also improve a previous bound by Giraud et al. [Num. Math., 101(1):87-100,\ 2005] on the CGS2 algorithm originally developed by Abdelmalek [BIT, 11(4):354--367,\ 1971]. \medskip Keywords: Block matrices, Q--R factorization, Gram-Schmidt process, Condition numbers, Rounding error analysis.
Keck High Resolution Spectroscopy of PKS 0123+257: Intrinsic Absorption in a Radio Loud Quasar
Thomas A. Barlow,W. L. W. Sargent
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/118239
Abstract: We present results from Keck I high resolution spectroscopy of the radio loud quasar PKS 0123+257 ($z_e$=2.364, V=17.5). In this object we detect Ly$\alpha$, N V 1238,1242, Si IV 1393,1402, and C IV 1548,1550 in an absorption system at a redshift of 2.369. The Ly$\alpha$ line has a square- bottomed profile suggesting a high column density of gas, yet the line does not reach zero intensity. The resolved C IV doublet ratio also clearly demonstrates that the absorbing clouds at this redshift do not fully occult the background light source along our line-of-sight. The absorption lines are positioned near the centers of the broad emission- lines and the coverage fraction of the strongest absorption lines varies inversely proportionally with the strength of the corresponding emission lines. This implies that although the absorption-line region may obscure the continuum source, it does not completely occult the broad emission-line region. This effect suggests that the lines are formed close to the QSO central region. A model is proposed in which the apparent coverage fraction derived for the weaker absorption lines may vary with the column density of the lines. Broad absorption-lines (which are known to be intrinsic) are found nearly exclusively in radio-quiet objects. Intrinsic narrow absorption lines have previously been found in radio quiet QSOs; it is therefore significant that an intrinsic absorption system has been verified in a radio loud quasar.
A note on the error analysis of classical Gram-Schmidt
Alicja Smoktunowicz,Jesse L. Barlow,Julien Langou
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s00211-006-0042-1
Abstract: An error analysis result is given for classical Gram--Schmidt factorization of a full rank matrix $A$ into $A=QR$ where $Q$ is left orthogonal (has orthonormal columns) and $R$ is upper triangular. The work presented here shows that the computed $R$ satisfies $\normal{R}=\normal{A}+E$ where $E$ is an appropriately small backward error, but only if the diagonals of $R$ are computed in a manner similar to Cholesky factorization of the normal equations matrix. A similar result is stated in [Giraud at al, Numer. Math. 101(1):87--100,2005]. However, for that result to hold, the diagonals of $R$ must be computed in the manner recommended in this work.
Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants
Austin L. Oder,David L. Stalling,Steven M. Barlow
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/168459
Abstract: The dense representation of trigeminal mechanosensitive afferents in the lip vermilion, anterior tongue, intraoral mucosa, and temporomandibular joint allows the infant’s orofacial system to encode a wide range of somatosensory experiences during the critical period associated with feed development. Our understanding of how this complex sensorium processes texture is very limited in adults, and the putative role of texture encoding in the infant is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a novel textured pacifier experience in healthy term infants ( ). Nonnutritive suck (NNS) compression pressure waveforms were digitized in real time using a variety of custom-molded textured pacifiers varying in spatial array density of touch domes. MANCOVA, adjusted for postmenstrual age at test and sex, revealed that infants exhibited an increase in NNS burst attempts at the expense of a degraded suck burst structure with the textured pacifiers, suggesting that the suck central pattern generator (sCPG) is significantly disrupted and reorganized by this novel orocutaneous experience. The current findings provide new insight into oromotor control as a function of the oral somatosensory environment in neurotypically developing infants. 1. Introduction The human orofacial system has a remarkably rich supply of mechanoreceptors, making it one of the most sensitive tissue areas of the body in terms of tactile acuity and spatial resolution [1]. Fast-adapting type I (Meissner’s corpuscles) and slow-adapting types I and II (Merkel cells and Ruffini endings, resp.) Aβ mechanoreceptors have dense innervations within perioral and intraoral structures, including the hairy skin of the face, glabrous skin of the lips, oral mucosa, and the anterior tip of the tongue. Both type I receptors—Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cells—have relatively small receptive fields with clearly defined borders and are primarily responsible for encoding tactile spatial information, including fine form and texture. Type II receptors of the face and mouth—pseudo-Ruffini endings—have larger receptive fields (<2?mm), respond to lateral skin stretch, and are presumed to function as a hybrid proprioceptor [2]. The majority of the skin of the face, lips, and oral mucosa contains slow-adapting mechanoreceptors, while the tongue tip is especially dense in fast-adapting type I mechanoreceptors, making this structure ideal for manipulation and exploration of objects in the mouth [1, 3]. The cutaneous information encoded by these mechanoreceptors is conducted along somatotopic
Metal ion sequestration: An exciting dimension for molecularly imprinted polymer technology
DMS Mosha, LL Mkayula
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2005,
Abstract: The use of a tight binding macrocyclic ligand to complex a metal ion so that this serves as receptee on the Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) receptor as described here affords a sequestration route for a targeted metal ion, with potential for environmental remediation and restoration applications. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) based co-polymer systems with either acrylamide or 4-vinyl pyridine as binding monomers are examined. These monomer choices provide strong non-covalent interactions with complementary structural elements in the MIP. The nickel(lI) ion whose chemistry is a reasonable substitute for many of the common environmentally important metal ions was examined as prototype. With (N,N\',N\",N\"\'-tetra(2-carbamoylethyl) 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)nickel(lI) perchlorate, A4cyclamNi(CI04h serving as imprint, the MIP\'s have yielded competitive rebinding affinities (17 - ~ 95%) excelling traditional documented levels for noncovalent interactions with magnitudes dependent on monomer identity and rising with its content. Suppressed relative rebinding magnitudes apply for non-templated \'blind\' polymer controls. For the 4-vinyl pyridine case at the imprint: monomer level of 1:2 and 1:6. the contrasted MIP vs. control values are 17% vs. 14% and 95.6% vs. 35.6% respectively while for acrylamide monomer at the 1:4 and 1:12 imprint: monomer levels, the corresponding magnitudes are 18% vs. 16% and 74.4% vs. 21.2% respectively. This validates an imprinting effect, which gains prominence at higher monomer excesses. These polymer materials were shown to be robust and durable even under severe heat stress conditions. Evaluation of durability in terms of thermal stress (120OC; 24h) for the 4-vinyl pyridine MIP (imprint: monomer = 1:2) yielded an affinity improvement from 17 to 26%. For re-use operations, affinity increments to 19, 23,24,27, and 31% were recorded for five re-cycles Tanzania Journal of Science Vol. 31 (1) 2005: pp. 91-98
Progress in turbulence detection via GNSS occultation data
L. B. Cornman, R. K. Goodrich, P. Axelrad,E. Barlow
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2012,
Abstract: The increased availability of radio occultation (RO) data offers the ability to detect and study turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. An analysis of how RO data can be used to determine the strength and location of turbulent regions is presented. This includes the derivation of a model for the power spectrum of the log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of the permittivity (or index of refraction) field. The bulk of the paper is then concerned with the estimation of the model parameters. Parameter estimators are introduced and some of their statistical properties are studied. These estimators are then applied to simulated log-amplitude RO signals. This includes the analysis of global statistics derived from a large number of realizations, as well as case studies that illustrate various specific aspects of the problem. Improvements to the basic estimation methods are discussed, and their beneficial properties are illustrated. The estimation techniques are then applied to real occultation data. Only two cases are presented, but they illustrate some of the salient features inherent in real data.
Optical-ir echelle spectroscopy of ngc 6302
S. Casassus,P. F. Roche,M. J. Barlow,L. Binette
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2002,
Abstract: Espectroscop a echelle de [Si VI] 1.96 m, [Mg VIII] 3.03 m, y [Ar VI] 4.53 m, usando el telescopio UKIRT+CGS4, muestra que los per les de las l neas en NGC 6302 son sencillos y no est an resueltos a un con R 20 000; los anchos de las l neas son menores que 22 kms
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