Abstract:
We have found a security risk in the Liu's cypher based on random signals and feedback, when it utilizes a large class of noises for communication in its most secure state, the steady state. For the vulnerability to exist, the noise must have a spectrum which can be transformed to white-like noise by linear filtering. For the cracking, we utilize the natural properties of power density spectra and autocorrelation functions. We introduce and demonstrate the method for Lorentzian spectra. Some of the implications of the results concern the transient operation during changing bits, where the modulation products of noise cannot be band-limited therefore the cypher is vulnerable. We propose the application of line filters to provide a proper spectral shape and to improve the security.

Abstract:
Driven by analogies with state vectors of quantum informatics and noise-based logic, we propose a general scheme and elements of neural circuitry for processing and addressing information in the brain. Specifically, we consider random (e.g., Poissonian) trains of finite-duration spikes, and, using the idealized concepts of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, offer a procedure for generating 2^N-1 orthogonal vectors out of N partially overlapping trains ("neuro-bits"). We then show that these vectors can be used to construct 2^(2^N-1)-1 different superpositions which represent the same number of logic values when carrying or routing information. In quantum informatics the above numbers are the same, however, the present logic scheme is more advantageous because it is deterministic in the sense that the presence of a vector in the spike train is detected by an appropriate coincidence circuit. For this reason it does not require time averaging or repeated measurements of the kind used in standard cross-correlation analysis or in quantum computing.

Abstract:
We introduce a scheme for controlling physical and other quantities; utilizing noise-based logic for control-and-optimization with high dimensionality, similarly how the Hilbert space of quantum informatics can be utilized for such purpose. As a concrete realization of the noise-based control scheme, we introduce "Dictatorial control" where noise-based logic results in an exponential speedup of operation.

Abstract:
A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eve's probability for successful bit-guessing is found to converge towards 0.5 - i.e., the perfect security level - when ideal conditions are approached.

Abstract:
The width and shape of photon burst histograms pose significant limitations to the identification of single molecules in micro/nano-fluidic channels, and the nature of these histograms is not fully understood. To reach a deeper understanding, we performed computer simulations based on a Gaussian beam intensity profile with various fluidic channel diameters and assuming (i) a deterministic (noise-free) case, (ii) photon emission/absorption noise, and (iii) photon noise with diffusion. Photon noise in narrow channels yields a Gaussian burst distribution while additional strong diffusion produces skewed histograms. We use the fluctuating residence time picture [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2386-2388 (1998)] and conclude that the skewness of the photon number distribution is caused by the longitudinal diffusive component of the motion of the molecules as they traverse the laser beam. In the case of strong diffusion in narrow channels, this effect leads to a log-normal distribution. We show that the same effect can transform the separate peaks of the photon burst histograms of multiple molecule mixtures into a single log-normal shape.

Abstract:
Photonic burst histograms can be used to identify single protein molecules in micro/nano-fluidic channels provided the width of the histogram is narrow. Photonic shot noise and residence time fluctuations, caused by longitudinal diffusion, are the major sources of the histogram width. This Communication is a sequel to an earlier Letter of ours [L. L. Kish et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 143121 (2011)] and demonstrates that, for a given diffusion coefficient, an increase of the drift velocity enhances the relative shot noise and decreases the relative residence time fluctuations. This leads to an optimum drift velocity which minimizes the histogram width and maximizes the ability to identify single molecules, which is an important result for applications.

Abstract:
In this Letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple method to provide additional in-formation by conductivity measurements of soils. The AC electrical conductance of the soil is measured while it is exposed to a periodic vibration. The vibration-induced density fluctuation implies a corresponding conductivity fluctuation that can be seen as combination frequency components, the sum and the difference of the mean AC frequency and the double of vibration frequency, in the current response. The method is demonstrated by measurements on clayey and sandy soils.

Abstract:
Instantaneous noise-based logic can avoid time-averaging, which implies significant potential for low-power parallel operations in beyond-Moore-law-chips. However, the universe (uniform superposition) will be zero with high probability (non-zero with exponentially low probability) in the random-telegraph-wave representation thus the operations with the universe would require exponential time-complexity. To fix this deficiency, we modify the amplitudes of the signals of the L and H states and achieve an exponential speedup compared to the old situation. Another improvement concerns the identification of a single product (hyperspace) state. We introduce a time shifted noise-based logic, which is constructed by shifting each reference signal with a small time delay. This modification implies an exponential speedup of single hyperspace vector identification compared to the former case and it requires the same, O(N) complexity as in quantum computing.

Abstract:
Products of Gaussian noises often emerge as the result of non-linear detection techniques or as a parasitic effect, and their proper handling is important in many practical applications, including in fluctuation-enhanced sensing, indoor air or environmental quality monitoring, etc. We use Rice's random phase oscillator formalism to calculate the power density spectra variance for the product of two Gaussian band-limited white noises with zero-mean and the same bandwidth W. The ensuing noise spectrum is found to decrease linearly from zero frequency to 2W, and it is zero for frequencies greater than 2W. Analogous calculations performed for the square of a single Gaussian noise confirm earlier results. The spectrum at non-zero frequencies, and the variance of the square of a noise, is amplified by a factor two as a consequence of correlation effects between frequency products. Our analytic results is corroborated by computer simulations.

Abstract:
In a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett., 13 (2014) 1450020] we introduced a vehicular communication system with unconditionally secure key exchange based on the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution scheme. In this paper, we address the secure KLJN key donation to vehicles. This KLJN key donation solution is performed lane-by-lane by using roadside key provider equipment embedded in the pavement. A method to compute the lifetime of the KLJN key is also given. This key lifetime depends on the car density and gives an upper limit of the lifetime of the KLJN key for vehicular communication networks.