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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 689913 matches for " L. B. F. M. Waters "
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Hydrogen infrared recombination lines as diagnostic tool for hot star wind geometry
A. Lenorzer,A. de Koter,L. B. F. M. Waters
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We have analysed the infrared hydrogen recombination lines of a sample of well studied hot massive stars observed with the Infrared Space Observatory. Our sample contains stars from several classes of objects, whose circumstellar environment is believed to be dominated by an ionized stellar wind (the Luminous Blue Variables) or by a dense disk-like geometry (Be stars and B[e] stars). We show that hydrogen infrared recombination lines can be used as a diagnostic tool to constrain the geometry of the ionized circumstellar material. The line strengths are sensitive to the density of the emitting gas. High densities result in optically thick lines for which line strengths are only dependent on the emitting surface. Low density gas produces optically thin lines which may be characterized by Menzel case B recombination. The ISO observations show that stellar winds are dominated by optically thin \hi\ recombination lines, while disks are dominated by optically thick lines. Disks and winds are well separated in a diagnostic diagram using the \hu/\bra and the \hu/\pfg line flux ratios. This diagnostic tool is useful to constrain the nature of hot star environments in case they are highly obscured, for instance while they are still embedded in their natal molecular cloud.
Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars I. The sample stars
F. J. Molster,L. B. F. M. Waters,A. G. G. M. Tielens,M. J. Barlow
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011550
Abstract: This is the first paper in a series of three where we present the first comprehensive inventory of solid state emission bands observed in a sample of 17 oxygen-rich circumstellar dust shells surrounding evolved stars. The data were taken with the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrographs on board of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and cover the 2.4 to 195 micron wavelength range. The spectra show the presence of broad 10 and 18 micron bands that can be attributed to amorphous silicates. In addition, at least 49 narrow bands are found whose position and width indicate they can be attributed to crystalline silicates. Almost all of these bands were not known before ISO. We have measured the peak positions, widths and strengths of the individual, continuum subtracted bands. Based on these measurements, we were able to order the spectra in sequence of decreasing crystalline silicate band strength. We found that the strength of the emission bands correlates with the geometry of the circumstellar shell, as derived from direct imaging or inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution. This naturally divides the sample into objects that show a disk-like geometry (strong crystalline silicate bands), and objects whose dust shell is characteristic of an outflow (weak crystalline silicate bands). All stars with the 33.6 micron forsterite band stronger than 20 percent over continuum are disk sources. We define spectral regions (called complexes) where a concentration of emission bands is evident, at 10, 18, 23, 28, 33, 40 and 60 micron. We derive average shapes for these complexes and compare these to the individual band shapes of the programme stars.
The mineral composition and spatial distribution of the dust ejecta of NGC 6302
F. Kemper,F. J. Molster,C. Jaeger,L. B. F. M. Waters
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021119
Abstract: We have analysed the full ISO spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 in order to derive the mineralogical composition of the dust in the nebula. We use an optically thin dust model in combination with laboratory measurements of cosmic dust analogues. We find two main temperature components at about 100 and 50 K respectively, with distinctly different dust compositions. The warm component contains an important contribution from dust without strong infrared resonances. In particular the presence of small warm amorphous silicate grains can be excluded. The detection of weak PAH bands also points to a peculiar chemical composition of the dust in this oxygen-rich nebula. The cool dust component contains the bulk of the mass and shows strong emission from crystalline silicates, which contain about 10 percent of the mass. In addition, we identify the 92 micron band with the mineral calcite, and argue that the 60 micron band contains a contribution from the carbonate dolomite. We present the mass absorption coefficients of six different carbonate minerals. The geometry of the dust shell around NGC 6302 is studied with mid-infrared images obtained with TIMMI2. We argue that the cool dust component is present in a circumstellar dust torus, while the diffuse emission from the warm component originates from the lobes.
Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars II. The crystalline silicate complexes
F. J. Molster,L. B. F. M. Waters,A. G. G. M. Tielens
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011551
Abstract: This is the second paper in a series of three in which we present an exhaustive inventory of the 49 solid state emission bands observed in a sample of 17 oxygen-rich dust shells surrounding evolved stars. Most of these emission bands are concentrated in well defined spectral regions (called complexes). We define 7 of these complexes; the 10, 18, 23, 28, 33, 40 and 60 micron complex. We derive average properties of the individual bands. Comparison with laboratory data suggests that both olivines (Mg(2x)Fe(2-2x)SiO(4)) and pyroxenes (Mg(x)Fe(1-x)SiO(3)) are present, with x close to 1, i.e. the minerals are very Mg-rich and Fe-poor. This composition is similar to that seen in disks surrounding young stars and in the solar system comet Hale-Bopp. A significant fraction of the emission bands cannot be identified with either olivines or pyroxenes. Possible other materials that may be the carriers of these unidentified bands are briefly discussed. There is a natural division into objects that show a disk-like geometry (strong crystalline silicate bands), and objects whose dust shell is characteristic of an outflow (weak crystalline silicate bands). In particular, stars with the 33.5 micron olivine band stronger than about 20 percent over continuum are invariably disk sources. Likewise, the 60 micron region is dominated by crystalline silicates in the disk sources, while it is dominated by crystalline H(2)O ice in the outflow sources. We show that the disk and outflow sources have significant differences in the shape of the emission bands. This difference must be related to the composition or grain shapes of the dust particles. The incredible richness of the crystalline silicate spectra observed by ISO allows detailed studies of the mineralogy of these dust shells, and is the origin and history of the dust.
Crystallinity versus mass-loss rate in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars
F. Kemper,L. B. F. M. Waters,A. de Koter,A. G. G. M. Tielens
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010086
Abstract: Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations have shown that O-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars exhibit crystalline silicate features in their spectra only if their mass-loss rate is higher than a certain threshold value. Usually, this is interpreted as evidence that crystalline silicates are not present in the dust shells of low mass-loss rate objects. In this study, radiative transfer calculations have been performed to search for an alternative explanation to the lack of crystalline silicate features in the spectrum of low mass-loss rate AGB stars. It is shown that due to a temperature difference between amorphous and crystalline silicates it is possible to include up to 40% of crystalline silicate material in the circumstellar dust shell, without the spectra showing the characteristic spectral features. Since this implies that low mass-loss rate AGB stars might also form crystalline silicates and deposit them into the Interstellar Medium (ISM), the described observational selection effect may put the process of dust formation around AGB stars and the composition of the predominantly amorphous dust in the Interstellar Medium in a different light. Our model calculations result in a diagnostic tool to determine the crystallinity of an AGB star with a known mass-loss rate.
The 218 day period of the peculiar late B-type star HD 101584
Eric J. Bakker,Henny J. G. L. M. Lamers,L. B. F. M. Waters,Christoffel Waelkens
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: We have searched for periodicity in the photometric and spectroscopic variations of the enigmatic star HD 101584 and found a long-term variability on a typical time scale of 1700 days (4.7 years) and a highly significant period of 218+-0.7 day. This period is most prominently present in the photometric indices which are a measure for the Balmer jump (Geneva d and Stromgren c). The Doppler velocities of the high-excitation photospheric absorption lines (HeI and CII) seem to be variable with the photometric period. Our data favor the 218 day period for the Doppler velocities with a small probability that the true period is 436 days. We argue that HD 101584 is a close (highly) eccentric 218 day binary system with a low-mass unseen secondary. The photometric and Doppler variations are attributed to changes in the velocity law and mass-loss rate of the stellar wind which lead to asymmetric line profiles and a phase dependent Balmer discontinuity. Binary interaction is responsible for the changes in velocity law and mass-loss rate leading to the observed phenomena.
Circumstellar molecular line absorption and emission in the optical spectra of post-AGB stars
Eric J. Bakker,Henny J. G. L. M. Lamers,L. B. F. M. Waters,Ton Schoenmaker
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1007/BF00667868
Abstract: We present a list of post-AGB stars showing molecular line absorption and emission in the optical spectrum. Two objects show CH+, one in emission and one in absorption, and ten stars show C2 and CN in absorption. The Doppler velocities of the C2 lines and the rotational temperatures indicate that the line forming region is the AGB remnant. An analysis of the post-AGB stars of which CO millimeter data is available suggests that the C2} expansion velocity is of the same order as the CO expansion velocity. HD56126 has been studied in detail and we find a mass-loss rate of Mdot=2.8e-4 Msol/yr, fC2=2.4e-8 and fCN=1.3e-8. The mass loss derived from C2 is significantly larger than Mdot=1.2e-5 Msol/yr derived from CO. We find that all objects with the 21mu feature in emission show C2 and CN absorption, but not all objects with C2 and CN detections show a 21mu feature.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ionization as a tracer of gas flows through protoplanetary disk gaps
K. M. Maaskant,M. Min,L. B. F. M. Waters,A. G. G. M. Tielens
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323137
Abstract: Planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aim to characterize how the charge state of PAHs can be used as a probe of flows of gas through protoplanetary gaps. In this context, our goal is to understand the PAH spectra of four transitional disks. In addition, we want to explain the observed correlation between PAH ionization (traced by the 6.2/11.3 feature ratio) and the disk mass (traced by the 1.3 mm luminosity). We implement a model to calculate the charge state of PAHs in the radiative transfer code MCMax. The emission spectra and ionization balance are calculated. A benchmark modeling grid is presented that shows how PAH ionization and luminosity behave as a function of star and disk properties. The PAH ionization is most sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the electron density. In optically thick disks, where the UV field is low and the electron density is high, PAHs are predominantly neutral. Ionized PAHs trace low-density optically thin disk regions where the UV field is high and the electron density is low. Such regions are characteristic of gas flows through the gaps of transitional disks. We demonstrate that fitting the PAH spectra of four transitional disks requires a contribution of ionized PAHs in gas flows through the gap. The PAH spectra of transitional disks can be understood as superpositions of neutral and ionized PAHs. For HD97048, neutral PAHs in the optically thick disk dominate the spectrum. In the cases of HD169142, HD135344B and Oph IRS 48, small amounts of ionized PAHs located in the gas flows through the gap are strong contributors to the total PAH luminosity. The observed trend between the disk mass and PAH ionization may imply that lower-mass disks have larger gaps. Ionized PAHs in gas flows through these gaps contribute strongly to their spectra.
The lunar phases of dust grains orbiting Fomalhaut
M. Min,M. Kama,C. Dominik,L. B. F. M. Waters
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913065
Abstract: Optical images of the nearby star Fomalhaut show a ring of dust orbiting the central star. This dust is in many respects expected to be similar to the zodiacal dust in the solar system. The ring displays a clear brightness asymmetry, attributed to asymmetric scattering of the central starlight by the circumstellar dust grains. Recent measurements show that the bright side of the Fomalhaut ring is oriented away from us. This implies that the grains in this system scatter most of the light in the backward direction, in sharp contrast to the forward-scattering nature of the grains in the solar system. In this letter, we show that grains considerably larger than those dominating the solar system zodiacal dust cloud provide a natural explanation for the apparent backward scattering behavior. In fact, we see the phases of the dust grains in the same way as we can observe the phases of the Moon and other large solar system bodies. We outline how the theory of the scattering behavior of planetesimals can be used to explain the Fomalhaut dust properties. This indicates that the Fomalhaut dust ring is dominated by very large grains. The material orbiting Fomalhaut, which is at the transition between dust and planetesimals, can, with respect to their optical behavior, best be described as micro-asteroids.
Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH+ in the optical spectra of post-AGB stars
Eric J. Bakker,Ewine F. van Dishoeck,L. B. F. M. Waters,Ton Schoenmaker
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We present optical high-resolution spectra of a sample of sixteen post-AGB stars and IRC +10216. Of the post-AGB stars, ten show C2 Phillips and Swan and CN Red System absorption, one CH+ emission, one CH+ absorption, and four without any molecules. We find typically Trot=43-399, 155-202, and 18-50 K, log N = 14.90-15.57, 14.35, and 15.03-16.47 cm-2 for C2, CH+, and CN respectively, and 0.620. The presence of C2 and CN absorption is correlated with cold dust (Tdust<300K) and the presence of CH+ with hot dust (Tdust>300K). All objects with the unidentified 21mum emission feature exhibit C2 and CN absorption, but not all objects with C2 and CN detections exhibit a 21mum feature. The derived expansion velocity, ranging from 5 to 44 km/s, is the same as that derived from CO millimeter line emission. This unambiguously proves that these lines are of circumstellar origin and are formed in the AGB ejecta (circumstellar shell expelled during the preceding AGB phase). Furthermore there seems to be a relation between the C2 molecular column density and the expansion velocity, which is attributed to the fact that a higher carbon abundance of the dust leads to a more efficient acceleration of the AGB wind. Using simple assumptions for the location of the molecular lines and molecular abundances, mass-loss rates have been derived from the molecular absorption lines and are comparable to those obtained from CO emission lines and the infrared excess.
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