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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 593061 matches for " L-A Bolatito "
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The Natural Law Theory of Morality and the Homosexuality Debate in an African Culture
L-A Bolatito
OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Same sex relationship has recently been criticized by many not only on grounds of being immoral but also as a practice that erodes certain values attached to marriage and procreation in some African cultures. This paper examines the immorality or otherwise of homosexuality as an act. It argues that homosexual behaviour is degrading and damaging as an act because it devalues the institution of marriage and its related values in the Yoruba culture. The paper underscores the fact that a typical Yoruba would make allusions to either Christian or Islamic injunctions to justify the moral unacceptability of homosexuality as an act. It employs Aquinas natural law theory of morality to further argue that homosexual act is unnatural hence it goes against what reason dictates. The paper also argues that we cannot completely rule out the possibility that homosexual acts are consequences of certain predisposing biological factors over which actors have no control and if this is the case, then they cannot act otherwise. In the light of this, the paper argued for both nature and nurture as predisposing factors of homosexual behavior. It concludes by stressing that in spite of some biological arguments in favour of homosexual act, such act threatens the viability of the Yoruba community where special value is placed on the institution of marriage and procreation.
Fetal alcohol syndrome among grade-one children in the Northern Cape Province: prevalence and risk factors
MF Urban, MF Chersich, L-A Fourie, C Chetty, L Olivier, D Viljoen
South African Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Objective. To describe the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS among schoolgoing children in Grade 1 in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Design. A cross-sectional study using a two-tiered method for ascertainment of FAS/partial FAS cases, comprising: screening of growth parameters, diagnostic assessment for screen-positive children using clinical and neurocognitive assessments, and maternal history of drinking during pregnancy. Mothers or caregivers of FAS children and matched controls were interviewed. Setting. Primary schools in De Aar (8) and Upington (15). Subjects. Grade 1 pupils in 2001 (De Aar, N=536) and 2002 (Upington, N=1 299). Outcome measures. FAS or partial FAS. Results. The prevalence of FAS/partial FAS was high: 64/536 (119.4/1 000, 95% CI 93.2 - 149.9) in De Aar, and 97/1 299 (74.7/1 000, 95% CI 61.0 - 90.3) in Upington. Overall, 67.2 per 1 000 children (95% CI 56.2 - 79.7) had full FAS features. Growth retardation was also common in this population: 66.6% (1 181/1 774) were underweight, 48.3% (858/1 776) stunted, and 15.1% had a head circumference <2 SD for age. Mothers of children with FAS were less likely to have fulltime employment or have attended secondary school and had lower body mass index, and about 80% currently smoked. Over two-thirds of all pregnancies had been unplanned. Conclusions. A very high proportion of pupils (nearly 1 in 10) had FAS/partial FAS, the rate in De Aar being the highest yet described in South Africa. FAS/partial FAS may contribute to the extremely high rate of growth retardation in South Africa as a whole and is a major cause of learning disability. These epidemiological features are important in designing preventive interventions. South African Medical Journal Vol. 98 (11) 2008: pp. 877-882
Studies on the biology of schistosomiasis with emphasis on the Senegal river basin
Southgate VR,Tchuem Tchuenté L-A,Sène M,De Clercq D
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001,
Abstract: The construction of the Diama dam on the Senegal river, the Manantali dam on the Bafing river, Mali and the ensuing ecological changes have led to a massive outbreak of Schistosoma mansoni in Northern Senegal, associated with high intensity of infections, due to intense transmission, and the creation of new foci of S. haematobium. Data on the vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndombo, near Richard Toll, Senegal are presented with sympatric and allopatric (Cameroon) S. mansoni. Comparisons are made on infectivity, cercarial production, chronobiology of cercarial emergence and longevity of infected snails. Recent data on the intermediate host specificity of different isolates of S. haematobium from the Lower and Middle Valley of the Senegal river basin (SRB) demonstrate the existence of at least two strains of S. haematobium. The role of Bulinus truncatus in the transmission of S. haematobium in the Lower and Middle Valleys of the SRB is reviewed. Both S. haematobium and S. mansoni are transmitted in the same foci in some areas of the SRB.
ALMA Observations of the Coldest Place in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula
R. Sahai,W. H. T. Vlemmings,P. J. Huggins,L-A. Nyman,I. Gonidakis
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/777/2/92
Abstract: The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, and an extreme member of the class of Pre-Planetary Nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the AGB and Planetary Nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J=1-0) observations (with a 45 arcsec beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang with ALMA in the CO J=2-1 and J=1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with HST and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist -- these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (mm-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultracold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.
Studies on the biology of schistosomiasis with emphasis on the Senegal river basin
Southgate, VR;Tchuem Tchuenté, L-A;Sène, M;De Clercq, D;Théron, A;Jourdane, J;Webster, BL;Rollinson, D;Gryseels, B;Vercruysse, J;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000900010
Abstract: the construction of the diama dam on the senegal river, the manantali dam on the bafing river, mali and the ensuing ecological changes have led to a massive outbreak of schistosoma mansoni in northern senegal, associated with high intensity of infections, due to intense transmission, and the creation of new foci of s. haematobium. data on the vectorial capacity of biomphalaria pfeifferi from ndombo, near richard toll, senegal are presented with sympatric and allopatric (cameroon) s. mansoni. comparisons are made on infectivity, cercarial production, chronobiology of cercarial emergence and longevity of infected snails. recent data on the intermediate host specificity of different isolates of s. haematobium from the lower and middle valley of the senegal river basin (srb) demonstrate the existence of at least two strains of s. haematobium. the role of bulinus truncatus in the transmission of s. haematobium in the lower and middle valleys of the srb is reviewed. both s. haematobium and s. mansoni are transmitted in the same foci in some areas of the srb.
Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?
J Rabearivony, R Thorstrom, L-A R de Roland, M Rakotondratsima, TRA Andriamalala, ST Sam, G Razafimanjato, D Rakotondravony, AP Raselimanana, M Rakotoson
Madagascar Conservation & Development , 2010,
Abstract: The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar). These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha) and Mandrozo (15,145 ha) in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha) in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of 44 reptiles, 54 amphibians, 104 birds, 23 small mammals, 17 lemurs and one fish. Of these 243 species, 30 are threatened taxa comprising two Critically Endangered (CR), 11 Endangered (EN) and 17 Vulnerable (VU) species. The long term ecological viability of these sites has been shown by population stability of the two Critically Endangered flagship species, the Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) in Manambolomaty and Mandrozo and the recently rediscovered Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata) in Bemanevika. Other threatened species and high biological diversity also justifies their inclusion into Madagascar’s SAPM.
Poverty and maternal mortality in Nigeria: towards a more viable ethics of modern medical practice
Bolatito A Lanre-Abass
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-7-11
Abstract: Since high levels of poverty limit access to quality health care and consequently human development, this paper suggests ways of reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria. It emphasizes the importance of care ethics, an ethical orientation that seeks to rectify the deficiencies of medical practice in Nigeria, notably the problem of poor reproductive health services.Care ethics as an ethical orientation, attends to the important aspects of our shared lives. It portrays the moral agent (in this context the physician) as a self who is embedded in webs of relations with others (pregnant women). Also central to this ethical orientation is responsiveness in an interconnected network of needs, care and prevention of harm.This review concludes by stressing that many human relationships involve persons who are vulnerable, including pregnant women, dependent, ill and or frail, noting that the desirable moral response is that prescribed by care ethics, which thus has implications for the practice of medicine in Nigeria.Poverty exists when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs. These may be defined narrowly as "those needs necessary for survival"[1] or broadly as "those needs reflecting the prevailing standard of living in the community"[2]. Reproductive ill health is both a cause and consequence of poverty [3]. Sexual and reproductive health problems account for approximately 20 percent of the ill-health of women globally, and 14 percent of men due to lack of appropriate sexual and reproductive health services [4]. It is against this background that this review examines poverty as a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. It offers an insight into the practice of medicine in Nigeria which is different from that of modern medicine because it falls short of the principle of showing care. The consequence of this is the uncaring attitude of many health care providers in the context of maternal care. It suggests ways of reducing maternal deaths in Nigeria, emphasizing
Autonomy and interdependence: quandaries in research ethics  [PDF]
Bolatito Lanre-Abass
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.44026
Abstract: The autonomy of research participants is crucial in research ethics without which it will be difficult to carry out research. Central to the concept of autonomy is the debate on whether the cultural norms of individuals (particularly women) should be given priority in settings where these norms require that researchers should go through male heads such as husbands and traditional leaders. This paper examines issues relating to the autonomy of women in research ethics. It highlights the far-reaching implications of autonomy for women participating in research using Islam as a religion and Africa as case studies. The paper takes a look at what obtains in Ghana and Nigeria as African countries with diverse religious sects highlighting at the same time the extent to which women are autonomous in some Islamic parts of India and Pakistan. The paper stresses that in spite of certain factors limiting the autonomy of women in Africa and Islam, there is need for a more robust account of autonomy. It takes a relational approach to autonomy concluding at the same time that the best way to do bioethics is to be culture-sensitive.
Effects of cleaning agents in reducing microbial load on meat display tables at the Bodija municipal abattoir, Ibadan, Nigeria
A. E. J. Awosanya,,O. K. Bolatito,V. O. Adetunji
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Meat display tables have been implicated as one of the sources of meat contamination and a critical control point in food processing. Cleaning and disinfection operations are of great importance within the food processing industries for food safety reasons. The effectiveness of four cleaning agents as treatments for the reduction of microbial contamination of meat display tables used by meat sellers at the Bodija municipal abattoir in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria was assessed within April and October, 2009. The treatments include the use of: 1. Pipe-borne water (27oC); 2. Hot water at 85oC; 3. Pipe-borne water and detergent; 4. Combination of pipe-borne water, detergent and sodium hypochlorite. Swab samples were taken from a 1cm2 area on each wooden table surfaces before and after application of each treatment. They were processed and grown on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar to determine the effects of each treatment on total aerobic and coliform counts in the laboratory. The results revealed that all the four treatments had statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in reducing microbial contamination with treatment 4– combination of pipe-borne water, detergent and sodium hypochlorite having the highest percent reduction in total aerobic and coliform counts (63% and 75% respectively). It is recommended that treatments 3 and 4 should be incorporated into the routine activities of meat sellers before the commencement of daily sales and after, because of their greater effect in reducing coliform than treatments 1 and 2, in order to minimize contamination of meat arising from meat display tables.
Regulation of glucose and protein syntheses by Micrococcus luteus during the fermentation of a Nigerian rice, Oryza sativa variety “Igbimo”  [PDF]
Bolatito Esther Boboye, Ibiyemi Olufisayo Daramola
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.24035
Abstract: Micrococcus luteus synthesises glucose and protein during the fermentation of a Nigerian rice. To regulate the formation of these substances, mutation was carried out with an alkylating agent: ethylmethyl sulphonate (EMS). Screening the mutants generated for the levels of the traits expressed, four major groups were obtained. These are poor, moderate, good and super producers of either glucose or protein. They produced the properties at 0 - 1.00, 1.01 to 1.99 (moderate) and 2.0 to 2.99 (good) and 3.0 and above (super) mg.mL–1 of each substance. The classes were made up of 37, 40, 20 and 3 mutants for glucose production and 13, 35, 40 and 12 mutants for protein synthesis. The wild strain bacterium made 0.86 mg.mL–1 glucose and 1.2 mg.mL–1 protein describing the M. luteus as poor glucose maker and moderate protein producer. It was also noticed that the mutation caused some variants (25%) to form more glucose than protein; the remaining 75% of the population are made up of two sets viz: mutants having better ability to synthesise protein at higher concentrations than glucose and those that formed about the same amounts of the substances. It thus follows that the glucose and protein productions in M. luteus are genetically based and can be regulated by genetic manipulation.
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