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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208437 matches for " Lüdtke "
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Kurt Baldinger (1919-2007)
Helmut Lüdtke
Llengua & Literatura , 2008, DOI: 10.2436/l&l.vi.1226
Abstract:
Chalcogen-containing oxazolines in the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation
Braga, Antonio L.;Lüdtke, Diogo S.;Alberto, Eduardo E.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532006000100002
Abstract: a comparative study about the ability of chiral chalcogen-containing oxazolines to act as chiral ligands in the palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-1,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate with dimethyl malonate is reported. differences in the catalytic performance are observed with sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues.
Chalcogen-containing oxazolines in the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation
Braga Antonio L.,Lüdtke Diogo S.,Alberto Eduardo E.
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2006,
Abstract: A comparative study about the ability of chiral chalcogen-containing oxazolines to act as chiral ligands in the palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-1,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate with dimethyl malonate is reported. Differences in the catalytic performance are observed with sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues.
Safety and effects of two mistletoe preparations on production of Interleukin-6 and other immune parameters - a placebo controlled clinical trial in healthy subjects
Roman Huber, Holger Lüdtke, Johannes Wieber, Christiane Beckmann
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-116
Abstract: In this 3-armed randomized, double blind clinical trial healthy volunteers received increasing doses of either IP (strength F, 0.0125%, G, 0.25% and H, 5%, each for 4 weeks), or VM (1:1000 [D3], 1:100 [D2] and 2% each for 4 weeks) or placebo (isotonic solution) subcutaneously twice per week over a period of 12 weeks. Physical examination was performed weekly. Routine laboratory parameters and immunological parameters (C-reactive protein (CRP), differential blood count, lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulins, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) were analysed every 4 weeks.71 subjects were included in the study (IP = 30, VM = 21, placebo = 20) of whom 69 concluded it according to protocol. Application of IP strengths G and H caused strong local reactions at the site of injection. In parallel, a distinct eosinophilia (p < 0.001 compared to placebo) occurred. Furthermore, application of all IP concentrations resulted in an increase of CD4 cell counts (p < 0.05) compared to placebo. Stimulation of IL-6 production, CRP or relevant deviations in other laboratory parameters were not observed. Because of local reactions, IP strengths G and H were considered less tolerable than placebo. VM 2% was slightly less tolerable than placebo, caused only mild local reactions and an only small increase in eosinophile counts.Treatment with IP results in eosinophilia and an increase of CD4 cells but not in an increase of IL-6 or CRP. No safety concerns regarding the two mistletoe preparations have been raised by this study. EudraCT-Number 2007-002166-35.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01378702Mistletoe preparations are widely used among cancer patients in Europe [1,2]. Increasing evidence exists, that mistletoe preparations containing mistletoe lectins (ML) have beneficial effects on the quality of life of cancer patients during chemo- or radiation therapy [3]. Because they can stimulate the production of interleukin (IL)-6 in periphereal mononuclear cells and lymphoma cells in vitro it has been
Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up
Claudia M Witt, Rainer Lüdtke, Stefan N Willich
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6815-9-7
Abstract: Subgroup analysis including all patients with chronic sinusitis (ICD-9: 473.9; ≥12 weeks duration) of a large prospective multicentre observational study population. Consecutive patients presenting for homeopathic treatment were followed-up for 2 years, and complaint severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), and medication use were regularly recorded. We also present here patient-reported health status 8 years post initial treatment.The study included 134 adults (mean age 39.8 ± 10.4 years, 76.1% women), treated by 62 physicians. Patients had suffered from chronic sinusitis for 10.7 ± 9.8 years. Almost all patients (97.0%) had previously been treated with conventional medicine. For sinusitis, effect size (effect divided by standard deviation at baseline) of complaint severity was 1.58 (95% CI 1.77; 1.40), 2.15 (2.38; 1.92), and 2.43 (2.68; 2.18) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively. QoL improved accordingly, with SF-36 changes in physical component score 0.27 (0.15; 0.39), 0.35 (0.19; 0.52), 0.44 (0.23; 0.65) and mental component score 0.66 (0.49; 0.84), 0.71 (0.50; 0.92), 0.65 (0.39; 0.92), 0.74 (0.49; 1.00) at these points. The effects were still present after 8 years with SF-36 physical component score 0.38 (0.10; 0.65) and mental component score 0.74 (0.49; 1.00).This observational study showed relevant improvements that persisted for 8 years in patients seeking homeopathic treatment because of sinusitis. The extent to which the observed effects are due to the life-style regulation and placebo or context effects associated with the treatment needs clarification in future explanatory studies.Chronic sinusitis is generally accepted to be a common illness incurring considerable costs, despite limited epidemiological data[1]. It is defined as an inflammation of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses for at least 12 weeks which may cause nasal blockage or congestion, mucous discharge, facial pain or pressure, and/or impaired smell. Polyps, which may or may not
Regression toward the mean – a detection method for unknown population mean based on Mee and Chua's algorithm
Thomas Ostermann, Stefan N Willich, Rainer Lüdtke
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-8-52
Abstract: Several statistical approaches have been developed to analyse such situations, including the algorithm of Mee and Chua which assumes a known population mean μ. We extend this approach to a situation where μ is unknown and suggest to vary it systematically over a range of reasonable values. Using differential calculus we provide formulas to estimate the range of μ where treatment effects are likely to occur when RTM is present.We successfully applied our method to three real world examples denoting situations when (a) no treatment effect can be confirmed regardless which μ is true, (b) when a treatment effect must be assumed independent from the true μ and (c) in the appraisal of results of uncontrolled studies.Our method can be used to separate the wheat from the chaff in situations, when one has to interpret the results of uncontrolled studies. In meta-analysis, health-technology reports or systematic reviews this approach may be helpful to clarify the evidence given from uncontrolled observational studies.Regression to the mean (RTM) first described by Galton [1] is a statistical phenomenon broadly discussed when it comes to measure changes in the course of time. It occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extremely large or small values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that on average are closer to the mean of the basic population. Such changes are likely to be interpreted as a real drift, although they just might be artificial coming from the fact that the sampling of values was not random but selected.RTM affects all fields of life science, when effects of an intervention have to be evaluated in an uncontrolled longitudinal setting. Medical rehabilitation programmes for example, often are evaluated for their ability to restore the patient's ability to work. Unaware of RTM effects a patient's recovery typically is interpreted as a treatment effect [2]. Other examples include the evaluation of asthma disease management programmes [3] or
Nota sobre a ocorrência de pétalas reduzidas em espécies de Polygala L. subgênero Hebeclada (Chodat) Blake (Polygalaceae) da Regi?o Sul do Brasil
Lüdtke, Raquel;Aguiar, Ana Cristina Andrade de;
Biota Neotropica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032008000100028
Abstract: the number of petals in the flowers is a taxonomic character used in the circumscription of the subgenera of polygala. until now, the corolla of the species of subgenus hebeclada was described having tree petals, one inferior and central called carina and two lateral adnated to the staminal sheath. among the 12 subgenera of polygala, the occurrence of trimerous corolla was only known in subgenera polygala and hebeclada. this paper presents the discovery of pentamerous corolla in species of polygala subgenus hebeclada, presenting photos and additional comments about this reduced petals unknown for the subgenus until this moment.
In-Patient Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Controlled Nonrandomized Comparison of Conventional Medicine versus Integrative Medicine including Fasting Therapy
Andreas Michalsen,Chenying Li,Katharina Kaiser,Rainer Lüdtke
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/908610
Abstract:
Are the Effects of Homeopathy Attributable to a Statistical Artefact? A Reanalysis of an Observational Study
Rainer Lüdtke,Stefan N. Willich,Thomas Ostermann
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/612890
Abstract: Background. Cohort studies have reported that patients improve considerably after individualised homeopathic treatment. However, these results may be biased by regression to the mean (RTM). Objective. To evaluate whether the observed changes in previous cohort studies are due to RTM and to estimate RTM adjusted effects. Methods. SF-36 quality-of-life (QoL) data from a German cohort of 2827 chronically diseased adults treated by a homeopath were reanalysed by Mee and Chua’s modified -test. Results. RTM adjusted effects, standardized by the respective standard deviation at baseline, were 0.12 (95% CI: 0.06–0.19, ) in the mental and 0.25 (0.22–0.28, ) in the physical summary score. Small-to-moderate effects were confirmed for the most individual diagnoses in physical, but not in mental component scores. Under the assumption that the true population mean equals the mean of all actually diseased patients, RTM adjusted effects were confirmed for both scores in most diagnoses. Conclusions. Changes in QoL after treatment by a homeopath are small but cannot be explained by RTM alone. As all analyses made conservative assumptions, true RTM adjusted effects are probably larger than presented. 1. Introduction Homeopathy is a whole medical system practiced in many regions of the world [1], especially in high-income countries where it ranks as the most popular among the traditional, complementary, or alternative medicines [1–3]. In homeopathy, a diagnosis can be treated with different medicines in different patients “individualization”, depending on varying concomitant symptoms. Homeopathic medicines (remedies) are produced by alternating steps of diluting and agitating a starting substance; the resulting “potencies” quickly reach dilutions beyond Avogadro’s number where the probability that one molecule of the starting substance is still present rapidly approaches zero. Such “high potencies” are often used, and their effects constitute a subject of scientific controversy [4]. Systematic reviews of placebocontrolled trials (pooling a great variety of diseases and ailments) [5–7] have shown inconsistent results. Treatment by homeopaths is typically regarded as a complex health intervention, which cannot be reduced to the efficacy of homeopathic medicines alone. It is claimed that the special style of case-taking, a different approach on how to manage conventional therapies, and specific life-style recommendations must both be considered as intrinsic parts of a homeopathic treatment. If so, randomised controlled trials on homeopathic medicines alone might be
Catalytic enantioselective arylations: boron to zinc exchange as a powerful tool for the generation of transferable aryl groups
Paix?o, Márcio W.;Braga, Antonio L.;Lüdtke, Diogo S.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532008000500003
Abstract: the transmetalation between boron and zinc is of great importance for application in organic synthesis, since it allows the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds between organometallic units and electrophiles. the direct arylation of aldehydes or more scarcely ketones, in a catalytic, enantioselective manner using chiral catalysts has been described recently. the enantiomerically enriched diarylmethanols obtained in these reactions are valuable precursors for important bioactive molecules. this review provides a synopsis of this ever-growing field and highlights some of the challenges that still remain.
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