Abstract:
By using a fully relativistic embedded cluster Green's function technique we investigated the magnetic anisotropy properties of four different compact Cr trimers (equilateral triangles) and Cr mono-layers deposited on Au(111) surface in both fcc and hcp stackings. For all trimers the magnetic ground state was found a frustrated 120$^\circ$ N\'eel configuration. Applying global spin rotations to the magnetic ground state, the predictions of an appropriate second order spin Hamiltonian were reproduced with high accuracy by the first principles calculations. For the Cr trimers with adjacent Au atoms in similar geometry we obtained similar values for the in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy parameters, however, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions appeared to differ remarkably. For two kinds of trimers we found an unconventional magnetic ground state showing 90$^\circ$ in-the-plane rotation with respect to the high symmetry directions. Due to higher symmetry, the in-plane anisotropy term was missing for the mono-layers and distinctly different DM interactions were obtained for the different stackings. The chiral degeneracy of the N\'eel configurations was lifted by less then 2 meV for the trimers, while this value raised up to about 15 meV per 3 Cr atoms for the hcp packed mono-layer.

Abstract:
To calculate the magnetic ground state of nanoparticles we present a self-consistent first principles method in terms of a fully relativistic embedded cluster multiple scattering Green's function technique. Based on the derivatives of the band energy, a Newton-Raphson algorithm is used to find the ground state configuration. The method is applied to a cobalt nanocontact that turned out to show a cycloidal domain wall configuration between oppositely magnetized leads. We found that a wall of cycloidal spin-structure is about 30 meV lower in energy than the one of helical spin-structure. A detailed analysis revealed that the uniaxial on-site anisotropy of the central atom is mainly responsible to this energy difference. This high uniaxial anisotropy energy is accompanied by a huge enhancement and anisotropy of the orbital magnetic moment of the central atom. By varying the magnetic orientation at the central atom, we identified the term related to exchange couplings (Weiss-field term), various on-site anisotropy terms, and also those due to higher order spin-interactions.

Abstract:
We present detailed investigations of the magnetic properties of an Fe monolayer on W and Ta (110) surfaces based on the ab initio screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. By calculating tensorial exchange coupling coefficients, the ground states of the systems are determined using atomistic spin dynamics simulations. Different types of ground states are found in the systems as a function of relaxation of the Fe layer. In case of W(110) substrate this is reflected in a reorientation of the easy axis from in-plane to out-of-plane. For Ta(110) a switching appears from the ferromagnetic state to a cycloidal spin spiral state, then to another spin spiral state with a larger wave vector and, for large relaxations, a rotation of the normal vector of the spin spiral is found. Classical Monte Carlo simulations indicate temperature-induced transitions between the different magnetic phases observed in the Fe/Ta(110) system. These phase transitions are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively by finite-temperature spin wave theory.

Abstract:
We determined the magnetic B-T phase diagram of PdFe bilayer on Ir(111) surface by performing Monte Carlo and spin dynamics simulations based on an effective classical spin model. The parameters of the spin model were determined by ab initio methods. At low temperatures we found three types of ordered phases, while at higher temperatures, below the completely disordered paramagnetic phase, a large region of the phase diagram is associated with a fluctuation-disordered phase. Within the applied model, this state is characterized by the presence of skyrmions with finite lifetime. According to the simulations, this lifetime follows the Arrhenius law as a function of temperature.

Abstract:
MCSCF calculations are performed in order to determine the exchange coupling between the 2p electrons of the N atom and the LUMOs of the fullerene cage in the case of mono- and tri-anions of N@C60. The exchange coupling resulted by our calculations is large compared to the hyperfine interaction. The strong coupling can explain the missing EPR signal of the nitrogen in paramagnetic anions.

Abstract:
We raise the possibility that the chiral degeneracy of the magnons in ultrathin films can be lifted due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. By using simple symmetry arguments, we discuss under which conditions such a chiral asymmetry occurs. We then perform relativistic first principles calculations for an Fe monolayer on W(110) and explicitly reveal the asymmetry of the spin-wave spectrum in case of wave-vectors parallel to the (001) direction. Furthermore, we quantitatively interpret our results in terms of a simplified spin-model by using calculated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vectors. Our theoretical prediction should inspire experiments to explore the asymmetry of spin-waves, with a particular emphasis on the possibility to measure the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in ultrathin films.

Abstract:
The effect of local density of states (LDOS) fluctuations on the dynamics of a Kondo impurities in a small metallic point contact (PC) is studied. To estimate the spatial and energy dependent LDOS fluctuations we investigate a model PC by means of a transfer matrix formalism. For small PC's in the nanometer scale we find that near to the orifice strong LDOS fluctuations develop. These fluctuations may shift the Kondo temperature by several orders of magnitude, and result in a strong broadening of the PC Kondo peak in agreement with the results of recent measurements.

Abstract:
The finite-temperature magnetism of a monolayer on a bcc (110) surface was examined using a model Hamiltonian containing ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions and easy-axis on-site anisotropy. We examined the competition between the collinear ground state parallel to the easy axis and the spin spiral state in the plane perpendicular to this axis preferred by the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. Using approximative methods to calculate the magnon spectrum at finite temperatures, it was found that even if the ground state is collinear, increasing the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction strongly decreases the critical temperature where this collinear order disappears. Using atomistic spin dynamics simulations it was found that at this critical temperature the system transforms into the non-collinear state. Including external magnetic field helps stabilising the ferromagnetic state. An effect due to the finite size of the magnetic monolayer was included in the model by considering a different value for the anisotropy at the edges of the monolayer. This effect was shown to stabilize the spin spiral state by fixing the phase at the ends of the stripe.

Abstract:
A method is proposed to study the finite-temperature behaviour of small magnetic clusters based on solving the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, where the effective magnetic field is calculated directly during the solution of the dynamical equations from first principles instead of relying on an effective spin Hamiltonian. Different numerical solvers are discussed in the case of a one-dimensional Heisenberg chain with nearest-neighbour interactions. We performed detailed investigations for a monatomic chain of ten Co atoms on top of Au(001) surface. We found a spiral-like ground state of the spins due to Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions, while the finite-temperature magnetic behaviour of the system was well described by a nearest-neighbour Heisenberg model including easy-axis anisotropy.

Abstract:
A spin model including magnetic anisotropy terms and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions is studied for the case of a ferromagnetic monolayer with C2v symmetry like Fe/W(110). Using the quasiclassical stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, the magnon spectrum of the system is derived using linear response theory. The Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction leads to asymmetry in the spectrum, while the anisotropy terms induce a gap. It is shown that in the presence of lattice defects, both the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions and the two-site anisotropy lead to a softening of the magnon energies. Two methods are developed to investigate the magnon spectrum at finite temperatures. The theoretical results are compared to atomistic spin dynamics simulations and a good agreement is found between them.