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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208836 matches for " L Townsend "
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Resident Learning Styles: Are We Maximizing Learning Opportunities for Today’s Resident Learner?  [PDF]
Kathleen E. Knapp, Nichole L. Townsend, Seth P. Hanley, Lopa Misra, Pamela A. Mergens
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.57032
Abstract: Medical education is in constant evolution. It is important to continuously evaluate how residents are being taught in order to improve, and to maximize didactic time while improving standardized test scores. The aim of this study is to assess how residents prefer to learn, which factors preclude residents from studying, the prevalence of certain teaching methods at our institutions, and how this affects standardized exam scores. In order to gather this data, residents across the three Mayo Clinic campuses were anonymously surveyed regarding their preferred study habits, factors that affect their ability to study, how they are most frequently taught within their program, and their most recent in training exam (ITE) scores. Residents are frequently encountering didactic lessons that are consistent with their preferred study methods. However, there seems to be a number of preferred study methods that may not be represented by standard didactic sessions. There are many other factors that affect a resident’s ability to study and those should be taken into consideration by the department when deciding how to teach their residents.
Central Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression
Debbie L. Cohen,Raymond R. Townsend
International Journal of Nephrology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/407801
Abstract: Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.
Bayesian analysis of gene expression levels: statistical quantification of relative mRNA level across multiple strains or treatments
Jeffrey P Townsend, Daniel L Hartl
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-12-research0071
Abstract: We apply this method to Saccharomyces cerevisiae microarray datasets on the transcriptional response to ethanol shock, to SNF2 and SWI1 deletion in rich and minimal media, and to wild-type and zap1 expression in media with high, medium, and low levels of zinc. The method is highly robust to missing data, and yields estimates of the magnitude of expression differences and experimental error variances on a per-gene basis. It reveals genes of interest that are differentially expressed at below the twofold level, genes with high 'fold-change' that are not statistically significantly different, and genes differentially regulated in quantitatively unanticipated ways.Anyone with replicated normalized cDNA microarray ratio datasets can use the freely available MacOS and Windows software, which yields increased biological insight by taking advantage of replication to discern important changes in expression level both above and below a twofold threshold. Not only does the method have utility at the moment, but also, within the Bayesian framework, there will be considerable opportunity for future development.Methods for analysis of cDNA microarray data include those that cluster hierarchically [1] by principles of self-organization [2] or by k-means [3]. These methods yield enormous amounts of information about similarities of cell state and coordination of gene regulation, and are useful for grouping genes or transcriptional profiles by similarity. They have the limitation that although experimental replication enhances the significance of groupings observed, the groupings do not inherently quantify signal and noise. A fold-value cutoff originally was used for this purpose [4], and held double duty as a signifier of true signal and a boundary beyond which observed fold-measures were considered to be reflective of actual fold-change. Other approaches use likelihood-based methods [5,6] to obtain P-values for gene expression differences in replicated comparisons. These methods m
Global Health Governance: Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the Doha Declaration, and Democratisation
Belinda Townsend,Erik Martin,Hans L?fgren,Evelyne de Leeuw
Administrative Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/admsci2020186
Abstract: Global public health agreements are heralded as a success for the affirmation of the right to health within a complex and contested political landscape. However, the practical implementation of such agreements at the national level is often overlooked. This article outlines two radically different global health agreements: The Doha Declaration on the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement and Public Health; and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We identify significant challenges in their implementation, particularly for low and middle income countries. Shifts in the policy network constellations around these two agreements have allowed for some positive influence by civil society. Yet industry influence at the national level constrains effective implementation and those affected by these policies have largely been left on the periphery. The broader provisions of these two agreements have been watered down by vested interests and donor conditions. We advocate for both activist and academic actors to play a significant role in highlighting the consequences of these power asymmetries. Deliberative democracy may be the key to addressing these challenges in a way that empowers those presently excluded from effective participation in the policy?process.
PhyDesign: an online application for profiling phylogenetic informativeness
Francesc López-Giráldez, Jeffrey P Townsend
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-152
Abstract: Here, we present PhyDesign, a platform-independent online application that implements the Townsend (2007) phylogenetic informativeness analysis, providing a quantitative prediction of the utility of loci to solve specific phylogenetic questions. An easy-to-use interface facilitates uploading of alignments and ultrametric trees to calculate and depict profiles of informativeness over specified time ranges, and provides rankings of locus prioritization for epochs of interest.By providing these profiles, PhyDesign facilitates locus prioritization increasing the efficiency of sequencing for phylogenetic purposes compared to traditional studies with more laborious and low capacity screening methods, as well as increasing the accuracy of phylogenetic studies. Together with a manual and sample files, the application is freely accessible at http://phydesign.townsend.yale.edu webcite.Due to advances in sequencing technologies and decreasing costs, the number of genomes sequenced for species across the tree of life is increasing dramatically. Tools and databases for selecting single-copy orthologous loci [1,2] and designing successful primers for them [3,4] are available. However, orthology assessments for multiple genomes can provide thousands of candidate loci to sequence, and yet only a few of those have been commonly used as markers for phylogenetic studies [5]. To address the challenge of locus selection for sequencing in designing a phylogenetic study, Townsend [6] proposed a metric that provides a quantitative prediction of phylogenetic signal across historical times. Based on estimates of rates across sites, the phylogenetic informativeness metric facilitates prioritization of loci even when the taxa of interest have never been sequenced for a given locus. To estimate phylogenetic informativeness, prior data on the molecular evolutionary pattern of a locus is required. This prior information may be derived from three potential sources: 1) preliminary data on the candi
Erratum to: The future of hybrid imaging—part 3: PET/MR, small-animal imaging and beyond
T. Beyer,L. S. Freundenberg,J. Czernin,D. W. Townsend
Insights into Imaging , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13244-011-0136-x
Abstract:
Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP
Haverkost, Terry R.;Gardner, Scott L.;Townsend Peterson, A.;
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2010,
Abstract: the ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. however, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infections has been difficult. however, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of the localities of other parasites with common history. here, we find that the ecological niche of a tapeworm parasite of voles, paranoplocephala macrocephala (cestoda: anoplocephalidae), allows prediction of the presence (in ecological and geographic space) of 19 related parasite species from 3 genera in 23 different hosts throughout the nearctic. these results give credence to the idea that this group shares similar life cycle requirements despite phylogenetic distance. this work further validates ecological niche modeling as a means by which to predict occurrence of parasites when not all facets of the life cycle are confirmed. such inductive methods create the opportunity for deducing potential reservoir or intermediate hosts, and complementing studies of parasite biodiversity and community ecology.
Potential role of tigecycline in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia
Mary L Townsend, Melanie W Pound, Richard H Drew
Infection and Drug Resistance , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S6030
Abstract: tential role of tigecycline in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia Review (4664) Total Article Views Authors: Mary L Townsend, Melanie W Pound, Richard H Drew Published Date March 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 77 - 86 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S6030 Mary L Townsend1,2, Melanie W Pound1,3, Richard H Drew1,4 1Campbell University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA; 2Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, NC, USA; 4Duke University School of Medicine and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Tigecycline is a member of the glycylcycline class of antimicrobials, which is structurally similar to the tetracycline class. It demonstrates potent in vitro activity against causative pathogens that are most frequently isolated in patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), including (but not limited to) Streptococcus pneumoniae (both penicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains), Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (including β-lactamase-producing strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ‘atypical organisms’ (namely Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila). Comparative randomized clinical trials to date performed in hospitalized patients receiving tigecycline 100 mg intravenous (IV) × 1 and then 50 mg IV twice daily thereafter have demonstrated efficacy and safety comparable to the comparator agent. Major adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal in nature. Tigecycline represents a parenteral monotherapy option in hospitalized patients with CABP (especially in patients unable to receive respiratory fluoroquinolones). However, alternate and/or additional therapies should be considered in patients with more severe forms of CABP in light of recent data of increased mortality in patients receiving tigecycline for other types of severe infection.
Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP Predicción de la distribución de un parásito usando el modelo de nicho ecológico, GARP
Terry R. Haverkost,Scott L. Gardner,A. Townsend Peterson
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2010,
Abstract: The ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. However, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infections has been difficult. However, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. Testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of the localities of other parasites with common history. Here, we find that the ecological niche of a tapeworm parasite of voles, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), allows prediction of the presence (in ecological and geographic space) of 19 related parasite species from 3 genera in 23 different hosts throughout the Nearctic. These results give credence to the idea that this group shares similar life cycle requirements despite phylogenetic distance. This work further validates ecological niche modeling as a means by which to predict occurrence of parasites when not all facets of the life cycle are confirmed. Such inductive methods create the opportunity for deducing potential reservoir or intermediate hosts, and complementing studies of parasite biodiversity and community ecology. El nicho ecológico de un parásito existe sólo cuando coinciden condiciones abióticas y bióticas necesarias para los hospederos definitivos e intermediarios. No obstante, los ciclos de vida de la mayoría de los parásitos son poco conocidos; el usar áreas de distribución de hospederos para encontrar áreas endémicas de parasitismo ha resultado difícil. Con el modelado de nicho, se pueden producir mapas del área de distribución potencial con base en sitios conocidos de presencia. Para probar la validez de estos mapas, se requiere el conocimiento de sitios de presencia de otros parásitos relacionados. En este estudio, encontramos que el nicho ecológico de un gusano parásito de ratones, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) permite predecir la presencia de 19 especies relacionadas de parásitos de 3 géneros en 23 diferentes hospederos a través del Neártico. Estos resultados apoyan la idea de que este grupo comparte una historia filogenética común que se refleja en nichos compartidos y que el modelado de nichos ofrece una manera de predecir la presencia de parásitos aunque no se conozcan todos los detalles de su ciclo de vida. Estos métodos permiten deducir reservorios u hospederos para estos parásitos.
Open Access and the Author-Pays Problem: Assuring Access for Readers and Authors in a Global Community of Scholars
A. Townsend Peterson,Ada Emmett,Marc L. Greenberg
Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication , 2013,
Abstract:
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