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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 91978 matches for " Kyle W. Taylor equal contributor "
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Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from Binding to TFT1 Attenuate Xanthomonas Virulence
Kyle W. Taylor equal contributor,Jung-Gun Kim equal contributor,Xue B. Su,Chris D. Aakre,Julie A. Roden,Christopher M. Adams,Mary Beth Mudgett
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002768
Abstract: XopN is a type III effector protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria that suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; however, TFT1's role in PTI and/or XopN virulence was not determined. Here we show that TFT1 functions in PTI and is a XopN virulence target. Virus-induced gene silencing of TFT1 mRNA in tomato leaves resulted in increased growth of Xcv ΔxopN and Xcv ΔhrpF demonstrating that TFT1 is required to inhibit Xcv multiplication. TFT1 expression was required for Xcv-induced accumulation of PTI5, GRAS4, WRKY28, and LRR22 mRNAs, four PTI marker genes in tomato. Deletion analysis revealed that the XopN C-terminal domain (amino acids 344–733) is sufficient to bind TFT1. Removal of amino acids 605–733 disrupts XopN binding to TFT1 in plant extracts and inhibits XopN-dependent virulence in tomato, demonstrating that these residues are necessary for the XopN/TFT1 interaction. Phos-tag gel analysis and mass spectrometry showed that XopN is phosphorylated in plant extracts at serine 688 in a putative 14-3-3 recognition motif. Mutation of S688 reduced XopN's phosphorylation state but was not sufficient to inhibit binding to TFT1 or reduce XopN virulence. Mutation of S688 and two leucines (L64,L65) in XopN, however, eliminated XopN binding to TFT1 in plant extracts and XopN virulence. L64 and L65 are required for XopN to bind TARK1, a tomato atypical receptor kinase required for PTI. This suggested that TFT1 binding to XopN's C-terminal domain might be stabilized via TARK1/XopN interaction. Pull-down and BiFC analyses show that XopN promotes TARK1/TFT1 complex formation in vitro and in planta by functioning as a molecular scaffold. This is the first report showing that a type III effector targets a host 14-3-3 involved in PTI to promote bacterial pathogenesis.
Selection at a Single Locus Leads to Widespread Expansion of Toxoplasma gondii Lineages That Are Virulent in Mice
Asis Khan equal contributor,Sonya Taylor equal contributor,James W. Ajioka,Benjamin M. Rosenthal,L. David Sibley
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000404
Abstract: Pathogenicity differences among laboratory isolates of the dominant clonal North American and European lineages of Toxoplasma gondii are largely controlled by polymorphisms and expression differences in rhoptry secretory proteins (ROPs). However, the extent to which such differences control virulence in natural isolates of T. gondii, including those from more diverse genetic backgrounds, is uncertain. We elucidated the evolutionary history and functional consequences of diversification in the serine/threonine kinase ROP18, a major virulence determinant in the mouse model. We characterized the extent of sequence polymorphism and the evolutionary forces acting on ROP18 and several antigen-encoding genes within a large collection of natural isolates, comparing them to housekeeping genes and introns. Surprisingly, despite substantial genetic diversity between lineages, we identified just three principal alleles of ROP18, which had very ancient ancestry compared to other sampled loci. Expression and allelic differences between these three alleles of ROP18 accounted for much of the variation in acute mouse virulence among natural isolates. While the avirulent type III allele was the most ancient, intermediate virulent (type II) and highly virulent (type I) lineages predominated and showed evidence of strong selective pressure. Out-group comparison indicated that historical loss of an upstream regulatory element increased ROP18 expression, exposing it to newfound diversifying selection, resulting in greatly enhanced virulence in the mouse model and expansion of new lineages. Population sweeps are evident in many genomes, yet their causes and evolutionary histories are rarely known. Our results establish that up-regulation of expression and selection at ROP18 in T. gondii has resulted in three distinct alleles with widely different levels of acute virulence in the mouse model. Preservation of all three alleles in the wild indicates they are likely adaptations for different niches. Our findings demonstrate that sweeping changes in population structure can result from alterations in a single gene.
A Family of Helminth Molecules that Modulate Innate Cell Responses via Molecular Mimicry of Host Antimicrobial Peptides
Mark W. Robinson equal contributor ,Sheila Donnelly equal contributor,Andrew T. Hutchinson,Joyce To,Nicole L. Taylor,Raymond S. Norton,Matthew A. Perugini,John P. Dalton equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002042
Abstract: Over the last decade a significant number of studies have highlighted the central role of host antimicrobial (or defence) peptides in modulating the response of innate immune cells to pathogen-associated ligands. In humans, the most widely studied antimicrobial peptide is LL-37, a 37-residue peptide containing an amphipathic helix that is released via proteolytic cleavage of the precursor protein CAP18. Owing to its ability to protect against lethal endotoxaemia and clinically-relevant bacterial infections, LL-37 and its derivatives are seen as attractive candidates for anti-sepsis therapies. We have identified a novel family of molecules secreted by parasitic helminths (helminth defence molecules; HDMs) that exhibit similar biochemical and functional characteristics to human defence peptides, particularly CAP18. The HDM secreted by Fasciola hepatica (FhHDM-1) adopts a predominantly α-helical structure in solution. Processing of FhHDM-1 by F. hepatica cathepsin L1 releases a 34-residue C-terminal fragment containing a conserved amphipathic helix. This is analogous to the proteolytic processing of CAP18 to release LL-37, which modulates innate cell activation by classical toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that full-length recombinant FhHDM-1 and a peptide analogue of the amphipathic C-terminus bind directly to LPS in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing its interaction with both LPS-binding protein (LBP) and the surface of macrophages. Furthermore, FhHDM-1 and the amphipathic C-terminal peptide protect mice against LPS-induced inflammation by significantly reducing the release of inflammatory mediators from macrophages. We propose that HDMs, by mimicking the function of host defence peptides, represent a novel family of innate cell modulators with therapeutic potential in anti-sepsis treatments and prevention of inflammation.
Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation
Laura Ferguson equal contributor,Ferdinand Marlétaz equal contributor,Jean-Michel Carter equal contributor,William R. Taylor,Melanie Gibbs,Casper J. Breuker ,Peter W. H. Holland
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004698
Abstract: Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.
Self-Organization in High-Density Bacterial Colonies: Efficient Crowd Control
HoJung Cho equal contributor,Henrik J?nsson equal contributor,Kyle Campbell,Pontus Melke,Joshua W Williams,Bruno Jedynak,Ann M Stevens,Alex Groisman ,Andre Levchenko
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050302
Abstract: Colonies of bacterial cells can display complex collective dynamics, frequently culminating in the formation of biofilms and other ordered super-structures. Recent studies suggest that to cope with local environmental challenges, bacterial cells can actively seek out small chambers or cavities and assemble there, engaging in quorum sensing behavior. By using a novel microfluidic device, we showed that within chambers of distinct shapes and sizes allowing continuous cell escape, bacterial colonies can gradually self-organize. The directions of orientation of cells, their growth, and collective motion are mutually correlated and dictated by the chamber walls and locations of chamber exits. The ultimate highly organized steady state is conducive to a more-organized escape of cells from the chambers and increased access of nutrients into and evacuation of waste out of the colonies. Using a computational model, we suggest that the lengths of the cells might be optimized to maximize self-organization while minimizing the potential for stampede-like exit blockage. The self-organization described here may be crucial for the early stage of the organization of high-density bacterial colonies populating small, physically confined growth niches. It suggests that this phenomenon can play a critical role in bacterial biofilm initiation and development of other complex multicellular bacterial super-structures, including those implicated in infectious diseases.
Nucleosome Acidic Patch Promotes RNF168- and RING1B/BMI1-Dependent H2AX and H2A Ubiquitination and DNA Damage Signaling
Justin W. Leung equal contributor,Poonam Agarwal equal contributor,Marella D. Canny,Fade Gong,Aaron D. Robison,Ilya J. Finkelstein,Daniel Durocher,Kyle M. Miller
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004178
Abstract: Histone ubiquitinations are critical for the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR). In particular, RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 function in the DDR by ubiquitinating H2A/H2AX on Lys-13/15 and Lys-118/119, respectively. However, it remains to be defined how the ubiquitin pathway engages chromatin to provide regulation of ubiquitin targeting of specific histone residues. Here we identify the nucleosome acid patch as a critical chromatin mediator of H2A/H2AX ubiquitination (ub). The acidic patch is required for RNF168- and RING1B/BMI1-dependent H2A/H2AXub in vivo. The acidic patch functions within the nucleosome as nucleosomes containing a mutated acidic patch exhibit defective H2A/H2AXub by RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 in vitro. Furthermore, direct perturbation of the nucleosome acidic patch in vivo by the expression of an engineered acidic patch interacting viral peptide, LANA, results in defective H2AXub and RNF168-dependent DNA damage responses including 53BP1 and BRCA1 recruitment to DNA damage. The acidic patch therefore is a critical nucleosome feature that may serve as a scaffold to integrate multiple ubiquitin signals on chromatin to compose selective ubiquitinations on histones for DNA damage signaling.
Genome Wide Association Identifies Novel Loci Involved in Fungal Communication
Javier Palma-Guerrero equal contributor,Charles R. Hall equal contributor,David Kowbel,Juliet Welch,John W. Taylor,Rachel B. Brem ,N. Louise Glass
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003669
Abstract: Understanding how genomes encode complex cellular and organismal behaviors has become the outstanding challenge of modern genetics. Unlike classical screening methods, analysis of genetic variation that occurs naturally in wild populations can enable rapid, genome-scale mapping of genotype to phenotype with a medium-throughput experimental design. Here we describe the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) used to identify novel loci underlying trait variation in a microbial eukaryote, harnessing wild isolates of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We genotyped each of a population of wild Louisiana strains at 1 million genetic loci genome-wide, and we used these genotypes to map genetic determinants of microbial communication. In N. crassa, germinated asexual spores (germlings) sense the presence of other germlings, grow toward them in a coordinated fashion, and fuse. We evaluated germlings of each strain for their ability to chemically sense, chemotropically seek, and undergo cell fusion, and we subjected these trait measurements to GWAS. This analysis identified one gene, NCU04379 (cse-1, encoding a homolog of a neuronal calcium sensor), at which inheritance was strongly associated with the efficiency of germling communication. Deletion of cse-1 significantly impaired germling communication and fusion, and two genes encoding predicted interaction partners of CSE1 were also required for the communication trait. Additionally, mining our association results for signaling and secretion genes with a potential role in germling communication, we validated six more previously unknown molecular players, including a secreted protease and two other genes whose deletion conferred a novel phenotype of increased communication and multi-germling fusion. Our results establish protein secretion as a linchpin of germling communication in N. crassa and shed light on the regulation of communication molecules in this fungus. Our study demonstrates the power of population-genetic analyses for the rapid identification of genes contributing to complex traits in microbial species.
A Unique Spumavirus Gag N-terminal Domain with Functional Properties of Orthoretroviral Matrix and Capsid
David C. Goldstone equal contributor,Thomas G. Flower equal contributor,Neil J. Ball,Marta Sanz-Ramos,Melvyn W. Yap,Roksana W. Ogrodowicz,Nicole Stanke,Juliane Reh,Dirk Lindemann,Jonathan P. Stoye,Ian A. Taylor
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003376
Abstract: The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamyviruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Although FV infection is apparently benign, trans-species zoonosis is commonplace and has resulted in the isolation of the Prototypic Foamy Virus (PFV) from human sources and the potential for germ-line transmission. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. In addition, PFV Gag interacts with the FV Envelope (Env) protein to facilitate budding of infectious particles. Presently, there is a paucity of structural information with regards FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. Therefore, in order to probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag and learn more about FV egress and replication we have undertaken a structural, biophysical and virological study of PFV-Gag. We present the crystal structure of a dimeric amino terminal domain from PFV, Gag-NtD, both free and in complex with the leader peptide of PFV Env. The structure comprises a head domain together with a coiled coil that forms the dimer interface and despite the shared function it is entirely unrelated to either the capsid or matrix of Gag from other retroviruses. Furthermore, we present structural, biochemical and virological data that reveal the molecular details of the essential Gag-Env interaction and in addition we also examine the specificity of Trim5α restriction of PFV. These data provide the first information with regards to FV structural proteins and suggest a model for convergent evolution of gag genes where structurally unrelated molecules have become functionally equivalent.
A Novel Rhabdovirus Associated with Acute Hemorrhagic Fever in Central Africa
Gilda Grard equal contributor,Joseph N. Fair equal contributor,Deanna Lee equal contributor,Elizabeth Slikas,Imke Steffen,Jean-Jacques Muyembe,Taylor Sittler,Narayanan Veeraraghavan,J. Graham Ruby,Chunlin Wang,Maria Makuwa,Prime Mulembakani,Robert B. Tesh,Jonna Mazet,Anne W. Rimoin,Travis Taylor,Bradley S. Schneider,Graham Simmons,Eric Delwart,Nathan D. Wolfe,Charles Y. Chiu ,Eric M. Leroy
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002924
Abstract: Deep sequencing was used to discover a novel rhabdovirus (Bas-Congo virus, or BASV) associated with a 2009 outbreak of 3 human cases of acute hemorrhagic fever in Mangala village, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Africa. The cases, presenting over a 3-week period, were characterized by abrupt disease onset, high fever, mucosal hemorrhage, and, in two patients, death within 3 days. BASV was detected in an acute serum sample from the lone survivor at a concentration of 1.09×106 RNA copies/mL, and 98.2% of the genome was subsequently de novo assembled from ~140 million sequence reads. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BASV is highly divergent and shares less than 34% amino acid identity with any other rhabdovirus. High convalescent neutralizing antibody titers of >1:1000 were detected in the survivor and an asymptomatic nurse directly caring for him, both of whom were health care workers, suggesting the potential for human-to-human transmission of BASV. The natural animal reservoir host or arthropod vector and precise mode of transmission for the virus remain unclear. BASV is an emerging human pathogen associated with acute hemorrhagic fever in Africa.
A Single Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Scheme for Seven Pathogenic Leptospira Species
Siriphan Boonsilp equal contributor,Janjira Thaipadungpanit equal contributor ,Premjit Amornchai,Vanaporn Wuthiekanun,Mark S. Bailey,Matthew T. G. Holden,Cuicai Zhang,Xiugao Jiang,Nobuo Koizumi,Kyle Taylor,Renee Galloway,Alex R. Hoffmaster,Scott Craig,Lee D. Smythe,Rudy A. Hartskeerl,Nicholas P. Day,Narisara Chantratita,Edward J. Feil,David M. Aanensen,Brian G. Spratt,Sharon J. Peacock
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001954
Abstract: Background The available Leptospira multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme supported by a MLST website is limited to L. interrogans and L. kirschneri. Our aim was to broaden the utility of this scheme to incorporate a total of seven pathogenic species. Methodology and Findings We modified the existing scheme by replacing one of the seven MLST loci (fadD was changed to caiB), as the former gene did not appear to be present in some pathogenic species. Comparison of the original and modified schemes using data for L. interrogans and L. kirschneri demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the two schemes was not significantly different. The modified scheme was used to further characterize 325 isolates (L. alexanderi [n = 5], L. borgpetersenii [n = 34], L. interrogans [n = 222], L. kirschneri [n = 29], L. noguchii [n = 9], L. santarosai [n = 10], and L. weilii [n = 16]). Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of the 7 loci demonstrated that each species corresponded to a discrete clade, and that no strains were misclassified at the species level. Comparison between genotype and serovar was possible for 254 isolates. Of the 31 sequence types (STs) represented by at least two isolates, 18 STs included isolates assigned to two or three different serovars. Conversely, 14 serovars were identified that contained between 2 to 10 different STs. New observations were made on the global phylogeography of Leptospira spp., and the utility of MLST in making associations between human disease and specific maintenance hosts was demonstrated. Conclusion The new MLST scheme, supported by an updated MLST website, allows the characterization and species assignment of isolates of the seven major pathogenic species associated with leptospirosis.
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