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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168545 matches for " Kyle E. Litz "
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Aqueous Ti(IV)-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reaction
Kyle E. Litz
Molecules , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/12081674
Abstract: The aqueous Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene with 1,4-benzoquinone was compared and contrasted to the same reaction catalyzed with Flextyl P?, a novel Ti(IV) performance catalyst. The catalyst improved conversion by 22% versus the uncatalyzed reaction and represents a rare example of a Ti(IV) catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction in water.
Globalization and the changing face of educational leadership: Current trends & emerging dilemmas
David Litz
International Education Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v4n3p47
Abstract: This paper has used a deconstructivist conceptual framework in order to explore and analyze the multifaceted and complex impacts of globalization on educational leadership in the early 21st century. It will be argued that globalization has had far-reaching positive and negative effects on all of the various nation-states, cultures, economies, and peoples of the world and that these have also resulted in the emergence and evolution of a variety of interesting and practical educational leadership paradigms and managerial practices. In addition, this paper will conclude with several recommendations that can be used to guide additional research on the varied aspects and trends of educational leadership in a globalized context, and the development of international or cross-cultural international leadership development initiatives.
Failure to prevent medication errors: We need smarter nearly error proof systems  [PDF]
Loren G. Yamamoto, Kyle M. Watanabe, Joan E. Kanemori
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.32013
Abstract: Purpose: To determine if nurses are able to identify medication errors that have the potential to bypass computer physician order entry (CPOE) and smart ordering systems. Background: Medical care systems employ computer “smart” systems to reduce medication errors by using artificial intelligence (preprogrammed methods of decision support and error reduction). However, these systems are not perfect and they can be bypassed. Nurses who carry out the order represent the last check point in error prevention prior to the administration of medication orders. Methods: A paper exercise was created with 513 physician orders. Nurses were asked to indicate whether they would carry out the order, refuse to carry out the order, consult a pharmacist for clarification, or carry out the order with special precautions. Nurses were given the option of using any nursing or medical reference. Results: The rate of correctly identifying 23 of the contraindicated orders was low. Both experienced and inexperienced nurses had high rates of not identifying the errors despite similar use of references and requests for assistance from pharmacists. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that if an error escapes a smart system, nurses were able to identify most of these errors, but not all of these. The current system features high stress, self-esteem issues, time pressure, high volume, and high risk. The system must change radically to meet the public’s expectations of being nearly error free which can only be achieved with smarter systems that are more resistant to human errors.
A Five-Year Review of Enhanced Learning through Integration: Anatomy and Clinical Practice  [PDF]
Melanie Hagen, Brian K. Cooke, Ashleigh Wright, Kyle E. Rarey
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.811121
Abstract: Many medical schools have undergone curricula revisions and attempted to integrate basic and clinical sciences. In 2012, our program at the University of Florida College of Medicine underwent significant curricular reform, transitioning from the standard medical curriculum to a systems-based approach. The teaching of anatomy, clinical skills, radiology, ethics, population health, human behavior, and evidence-based medicine was integrated into one class, “Introduction to Clinical Medicine”, which spans 68 weeks in the pre-clerk- ship curriculum. As a result, there was a reduction of anatomy teaching from 166 to 120 hours. Our curriculum integration demonstrates opportunities for enhanced teaching including increasing peer learning, incorporating multidisciplinary case presentations, and allowing for a deliberate overlap and layering of anatomy education across two years of medical school. This paper describes our reflection on the effect of the curriculum change on student learning. Five years after implementation of these changes shows that our efforts also illustrate the challenges inherent to curricular integration including scheduling constraints, unclear sources of financial support, apprehension about the effect on future National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores, and difficulty assessing which areas a student needs to remediate within a failed integrated course. Overall, the integration of anatomy with other classes into a revised course at our College of Medicine has been well received and successful.
Macrophage-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis: The Emerging Role of Macrophages as Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors
Sophia Ran,Kyle E. Montgomery
Cancers , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/cancers4030618
Abstract: It is widely accepted that macrophages and other inflammatory cells support tumor progression and metastasis. During early stages of neoplastic development, tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) mount an immune response against transformed cells. Frequently, however, cancer cells escape the immune surveillance, an event that is accompanied by macrophage transition from an anti-tumor to a pro-tumorigenic type. The latter is characterized by high expression of factors that activate endothelial cells, suppress immune response, degrade extracellular matrix, and promote tumor growth. Cumulatively, these products of TAMs promote tumor expansion and growth of both blood and lymphatic vessels that facilitate metastatic spread. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies induce the formation of new lymphatic vessels ( i.e., lymphangiogenesis) that leads to lymphatic and subsequently, to distant metastasis. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that TAMs significantly promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through paracrine and cell autonomous modes. The paracrine effect consists of the expression of a variety of pro-lymphangiogenic factors that activate the preexisting lymphatic vessels. The evidence for cell-autonomous contribution is based on the observed tumor mobilization of macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP) that integrate into lymphatic vessels prior to sprouting. This review will summarize the current knowledge of macrophage-dependent growth of new lymphatic vessels with specific emphasis on an emerging role of macrophages as lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP).
Efficiency Enhancement of a Cantilever-Based Vibration Energy Harvester
Ali E. Kubba,Kyle Jiang
Sensors , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/s140100188
Abstract: Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries’ stiffness (K), output open-circuit voltage (V ave), and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (ε ave) that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm 3), has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 μJ/cycle).
Morfogénesis in vitro de dioon merolae de Luca, Sabato & Vázquez-Torres (zamiaceae, cycadales) a partir de megagametofitos y embriones cigóticos
Cabrera Hilerio,Sandra Luz; Chávez ávila,Victor Manuel; Sandoval Zapotitla,Estela; Litz,Richard E; Cruz Sosa,Francisco;
Interciencia , 2008,
Abstract: organogenic cultures were induced from zygotic embryo and megagametophyte explants of the chiapas state (méxico) endangered cycad species, dioon merolae. the litz induction medium consisted of b5 major salts, ms medium minor salts and the organics glutamine (400mg·l-1), arginine (100mg·l-1), asparagines (100mg·l-1), sucrose (60g·l-1), gellan gum (4g), and supplemented with 0, 0.45, 2.26, 4.52 and 9.05μm 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) and 0, 2.32, 4.60, 9.30, 13.90μm kinetin (k), arranged as a 5′5 factorial in a randomized block design. cultures were maintained in darkness at 25°c, and callus was subcultured onto fresh medium at 4 week intervals. callus initiation occurred on a wide range of plant growth regulators (pgr) combinations from megagametophyte explants. in comparison, callus initiation from explanted zygotic embryos occurred on few pgr combinations. adventitious shoot induction occurred from callus on formulations with k and 2,4-d. through the histological analysis of longitudinal sections of zygotic embryos were detected apical meristematic cells of the shoot and root and in megagametophytes the formation of elements similar to tracheids and coralloid roots. this technique has a great potential for preservation of the highly endangered cycads.
Regeneración de árboles tropicales e implicaciones para el manejo de bosques naturales
Kyle E. Harms,C. E. Timothy Paine
Ecosistemas , 2003,
Abstract: El reclutamiento exitoso desde semillas en bosques neotropicales implica una secuencia de etapas. La disponibilidad del polen y recursos consumibles por los árboles maternales puede limitar el número de semillas producidas. La dispersión de semillas a un sitio determinado puede ser limitada por la densidad o la dispersión de árboles frutales, o por el agrupamiento impuesto por los procesos de dispersión de semillas. El establecimiento de semillas dispersadas puede ser limitado por la mortalidad debida a enemigos naturales, por ejemplo depredadores de semillas y herbivoros, o por factores abióticos tales como la disponibilidad de agua, nutrientes y luz. Como la limitación impuesta por estas etapas puede verse afectada por la explotación forestal selectiva, es necesario investigar el efecto de las prácticas selvícolas sobre cada etapa en la dinámica del bosque.
The Atypical Stimulant and Nootropic Modafinil Interacts with the Dopamine Transporter in a Different Manner than Classical Cocaine-Like Inhibitors
Kyle C. Schmitt, Maarten E. A. Reith
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025790
Abstract: Modafinil is a mild psychostimulant with pro-cognitive and antidepressant effects. Unlike many conventional stimulants, modafinil has little appreciable potential for abuse, making it a promising therapeutic agent for cocaine addiction. The chief molecular target of modafinil is the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the mechanistic details underlying modafinil's unique effects remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that the conformational effects of a given DAT ligand influence the magnitude of the ligand's reinforcing properties. For example, the atypical DAT inhibitors benztropine and GBR12909 do not share cocaine's notorious addictive liability, despite having greater binding affinity. Here, we show that the binding mechanism of modafinil is different than cocaine and similar to other atypical inhibitors. We previously established two mutations (W84L and D313N) that increase the likelihood that the DAT will adopt an outward-facing conformational state—these mutations increase the affinity of cocaine-like inhibitors considerably, but have little or opposite effect on atypical inhibitor binding. Thus, a compound's WT/mutant affinity ratio can indicate whether the compound preferentially interacts with a more outward- or inward-facing conformational state. Modafinil displayed affinity ratios similar to those of benztropine, GBR12909 and bupropion (which lack cocaine-like effects in humans), but far different than those of cocaine, β-CFT or methylphenidate. Whereas treatment with zinc (known to stabilize an outward-facing transporter state) increased the affinity of cocaine and methylphenidate two-fold, it had little or no effect on the binding of modafinil, benztropine, bupropion or GBR12909. Additionally, computational modeling of inhibitor binding indicated that while β-CFT and methylphenidate stabilize an “open-to-out” conformation, binding of either modafinil or bupropion gives rise to a more closed conformation. Our findings highlight a mechanistic difference between modafinil and cocaine-like stimulants and further demonstrate that the conformational effects of a given DAT inhibitor influence its phenomenological effects.
Identification of novel homologous microRNA genes in the rhesus macaque genome
Junming Yue, Yi Sheng, Kyle E Orwig
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-8
Abstract: In addition to 71 miRNAs previously reported, we identified 383 novel miRNA genes in the rhesus genome. We compared the total 454 miRNAs identified so far in rhesus to human homologs, 173 miRNA genes showed 100% homology in precursor sequences between rhesus and human; The remaining 281 show more than 90%, less than 100% homology in precursor sequences. Some miRNAs in the rhesus genome are present as clusters similar to human, such as miR-371/373, miR-367/302b, miR-17/92, or have multiple copies distributed in the same or different chromosomes. RT-PCR analysis of expression of eight rhesus miRNA genes in rhesus tissues demonstrated tissue-specific regulation of expression.Identification of miRNA genes in rhesus will provide the resources for analysis of expression profiles in various tissues by creating a rhesus miRNA array, which is currently not available for this species. Investigation of rhesus miRNAs will also expand our understanding of their biological function through miRNA knockout, knockdown or overexpression.MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small endogenous RNAs with a length of about 22 nt that negatively regulate gene expression by degrading mRNA or impeding protein translation [1]. MiRNA genes are hosted in intronic, exonic or intergenic regions of the genome and are transcribed into primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) by polymerase II. The pri-miRNAs are processed into ~70 nt pre-miRNAs with a hairpin structure by a microprocessor complex composed of Drosha and Pasha [2-4]. The pre-miRNAs are then transported into the cytoplasm by exportin-5, where the RNAase III enzyme, Dicer, cleaves pre-miRNA into ~22 nt mature miRNAs, which are recruited into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) localized in discrete cytoplasmic foci, P bodies [5-8]. The RISC targets the mRNAs by perfect match to degenerate the target transcripts or binds the 3'UTR through imperfect base-pairing to block protein translation [9]. Recently computational analysis suggests miRNA may also b
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