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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 30230 matches for " Kwang-Sun Ryu "
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Synthesis and Control of the Shell Thickness of Polyaniline and Polypyrrole Half Hollow Spheres Using the Polystyrene Cores
Su-Ryeon Yun,Gyeong-Ok Kim,Chan Woo Lee,Nam-Ju Jo,Yongku Kang,Kwang-Sun Ryu
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/894539
Abstract: Polyaniline (Pani) and polypyrrole (Ppy) half hollow spheres with different shell thicknesses were successfully synthesized by three steps process using polystyrene (PS) as the core. The PS core was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Aniline and pyrrole monomers were polymerized on the surface of the PS core. The shells of Pani and Ppy were fabricated by adding different amounts of aniline and pyrrole monomers. PS cores were dissolved and removed from the core shell structure by solvent extraction. The thicknesses of the Pani and Ppy half hollow spheres were observed by FE-SEM and FE-TEM. The chemical structures of the Pani and Ppy half hollow spheres were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The shell thicknesses of the Pani half hollow spheres were 30.2, 38.0, 42.2, 48.2, and 52.4 nm, while the shell thicknesses of the Ppy half hollow spheres were 16.0, 22.0, 27.0, and 34.0 nm. The shell thicknesses of Pani and Ppy half hollow spheres linearly increased as the amount of the monomer increased. Therefore, the shell thickness of the Pani and Ppy half hollow spheres can be controlled in these ranges.
Ribonuclease E Modulation of the Bacterial SOS Response
Robert Manasherob, Christine Miller, Kwang-sun Kim, Stanley N. Cohen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038426
Abstract: Plants, animals, bacteria, and Archaea all have evolved mechanisms to cope with environmental or cellular stress. Bacterial cells respond to the stress of DNA damage by activation of the SOS response, the canonical RecA/LexA-dependent signal transduction pathway that transcriptionally derepresses a multiplicity of genes–leading to transient arrest of cell division and initiation of DNA repair. Here we report the previously unsuspected role of E. coli endoribonuclease RNase E in regulation of the SOS response. We show that RNase E deletion or inactivation of temperature-sensitive RNase E protein precludes normal initiation of SOS. The ability of RNase E to regulate SOS is dynamic, as down regulation of RNase E following DNA damage by mitomycin C resulted in SOS termination and restoration of RNase E function leads to resumption of a previously aborted response. Overexpression of the RraA protein, which binds to the C-terminal region of RNase E and modulates the actions of degradosomes, recapitulated the effects of RNase E deficiency. Possible mechanisms for RNase E effects on SOS are discussed.
Mathematical Distinction in Action Potential between Primo-Vessels and Smooth Muscle
Seong-Jin Cho,Sang-Hun Lee,Wenji Zhang,Sae-Bhom Lee,Kwang-Ho Choi,Sun-Mi Choi,Yeon-Hee Ryu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/269397
Abstract: We studied the action potential of Primo-vessels in rats to determine the electrophysiological characteristics of these structures. We introduced a mathematical analysis method, a normalized Fourier transform that displays the sine and cosine components separately, to compare the action potentials of Primo-vessels with those for the smooth muscle. We found that Primo-vessels generated two types of action potential pulses that differed from those of smooth muscle: (1) Type I pulse had rapid depolarizing and repolarizing phases, and (2) Type II pulse had a rapid depolarizing phase and a gradually slowing repolarizing phase.
Valproic Acid Downregulates the Expression of MGMT and Sensitizes Temozolomide-Resistant Glioma Cells
Chung Heon Ryu,Wan Soo Yoon,Kwang Ywel Park,Seong Muk Kim,Jung Yeon Lim,Ji Sun Woo,Chang Hyun Jeong,Yun Hou,Sin-Soo Jeun
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/987495
Abstract: Temozolomide (TMZ) has become a key therapeutic agent in patients with malignant gliomas; however, its survival benefit remains unsatisfactory. Valproic acid (VPA) has emerged as an anticancer drug via inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs), but the therapeutic advantages of a combination with VPA and TMZ remain poorly understood. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether an antitumor effect could be potentiated by a combination of VPA and TMZ, especially in TMZ-resistant cell lines. A combination of VPA and TMZ had a significantly enhanced antitumor effect in TMZ-resistant malignant glioma cells (T98 and U138). This enhanced antitumor effect correlated with VPA-mediated reduced O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression, which plays an important role in cellular resistance to alkylating agents. In vitro, the combination of these drugs enhanced the apoptotic and autophagic cell death, as well as suppressed the migratory activities in TMZ-resistant cell lines. Furthermore, in vivo efficacy experiment showed that treatment of combination of VPA and TMZ significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with the monotherapy groups of mice. These results suggest that the clinical efficacy of TMZ chemotherapy in TMZ-resistant malignant glioma may be improved by combination with VPA.
Polymeric LabChip Real-Time PCR as a Point-of-Care-Potential Diagnostic Tool for Rapid Detection of Influenza A/H1N1 Virus in Human Clinical Specimens
Hyun-Ok Song, Je-Hyoung Kim, Ho-Sun Ryu, Dong-Hoon Lee, Sun-Jin Kim, Deog-Joong Kim, In Bum Suh, Du Young Choi, Kwang-Ho In, Sung-Woo Kim, Hyun Park
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053325
Abstract: It is clinically important to be able to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus using a fast, portable, and accurate system that has high specificity and sensitivity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a highly specific primer set that recognizes only influenza A viral genes and a rapid real-time PCR system that can detect even a single copy of the viral gene. In this study, we developed and validated a novel fluidic chip-type real-time PCR (LabChip real-time PCR) system that is sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza A/H1N1, including the pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 of 2009. This LabChip real-time PCR system has several remarkable features: (1) It allows rapid quantitative analysis, requiring only 15 min to perform 30 cycles of real-time PCR. (2) It is portable, with a weight of only 5.5 kg. (3) The reaction cost is low, since it uses disposable plastic chips. (4) Its high efficiency is equivalent to that of commercially available tube-type real-time PCR systems. The developed disposable LabChip is an economic, heat-transferable, light-transparent, and easy-to-fabricate polymeric chip compared to conventional silicon- or glass-based labchip. In addition, our LabChip has large surface-to-volume ratios in micro channels that are required for overcoming time consumed for temperature control during real-time PCR. The efficiency of the LabChip real-time PCR system was confirmed using novel primer sets specifically targeted to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza A/H1N1 and clinical specimens. Eighty-five human clinical swab samples were tested using the LabChip real-time PCR. The results demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity, showing 72 positive and 13 negative cases. These results were identical to those from a tube-type real-time PCR system. This indicates that the novel LabChip real-time PCR may be an ultra-fast, quantitative, point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for influenza A/H1N1 with a high sensitivity and specificity.
Investigations on Structural Safety of Office Room Based on Fire Simulation and Transient Heat Transfer Analysis  [PDF]
Ah Young An, Eun Mi Ryu, Hee Sun Kim
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.23B004
Abstract:

This study aims at investigating heat propagations inside the structural members due to fire using fire simulation and transient heat transfer analysis. Toward that goal, fire simulation and transient heat transfer analysis for a 5-story building are carried out sequentially using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and ABAQUS 6.10-3, respectively. As results from fire simulation, temporal temperature information is obtained depending on various locations of the building, which is used as boundary condition for the structural elements generated in transient heat transfer analysis. Predictions from the transient heat transfer analysis show that the structural members are exposed spatially non-uniform temperatures which can cause significant eccentric deformation and aceleration of structural damages.


Synaptic Structure and Function in the Mouse Somatosensory Cortex during Chronic Pain: In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging
Sun Kwang Kim,Kei Eto,Junichi Nabekura
Neural Plasticity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/640259
Abstract: Recent advances in two-photon microscopy and fluorescence labeling techniques have enabled us to directly see the structural and functional changes in neurons and glia, and even at synapses, in the brain of living animals. Long-term in vivo two-photon imaging studies have shown that some postsynaptic dendritic spines in the adult cortex are rapidly eliminated or newly generated, in response to altered sensory input or synaptic activity, resulting in experience/activity-dependent rewiring of neuronal circuits. In vivo Ca2+ imaging studies have revealed the distinct, input-specific response patterns of excitatory neurons in the brain. These updated in vivo approaches are just beginning to be used for the study of pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic diseases. In this paper, we introduce recent in vivo two-photon imaging studies demonstrating how plastic changes in synaptic structure and function of the mouse somatosensory cortex, following peripheral injury, contribute to chronic pain conditions, like neuropathic and inflammatory pain. 1. Introduction Chronic pain initiated by tissue or nerve injury is a major challenge to clinical practice as well as basic neuroscience [1]. Peripheral neuropathic or inflammatory injury triggers structural and functional plastic changes in the cortical pain neuromatrix including the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which results in altered nociceptive signal processing, such as mechanical allodynia (painful response to innocuous mechanical stimuli) [2, 3]. In previous brain imaging studies, for example, patients and animals under chronic neuropathic or inflammatory pain states showed increased activation and somatotopic reorganization in the S1, the extent of which was highly correlated with the pain intensity levels [4, 5]. Changes in gray matter density and in cortical thickness of the pain-related areas including the S1, ACC, and insula cortex were also found in chronic pain subjects [6, 7]. Further, several strategies to reduce the S1 hyperexcitation and reorganization showed benefits against chronic pain [8–11]. Although much is now known about such macroscopic changes in the cortex, it remains to be elucidated how and to what extent cortical connections are remodeled during chronic pain, and how such remodeling affects pain behaviors. This paper focuses on the recent findings from in vivo two-photon imaging studies to address the aforementioned questions: (1) the rapid and phase-specific remodeling of synaptic structures in the S1 of neuropathic pain mice following
Acral Lentiginous Melanoma in Situ: A Diagnostic and Management Challenge
Hyun Sun Park,Kwang Hyun Cho
Cancers , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/cancers2020642
Abstract: Early stage recognition of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is important for a better prognosis, but in-depth understanding and proper management of ALM in situ is complicated, because there are only a few reports, probably due to its rarity and diagnostic difficulty. We have reviewed our experience with seven patients who were diagnosed as having ALM in situ and discuss how to accurately diagnose and properly manage these rare lesions. Clinically the lesions showed black to brown discoloration of the nail with Hutchinson’s sign and hyperpigmented macules on the heel with color variegation. All the lesions showed a diffuse lentiginous pattern of melanocytic proliferation with variable level of atypism along the dermoepidermal junction. Dermoscopic findings were available in three and revealed parallel ridge patterns. Confrontation of clinical and histopathologic findings was observed in three, and the lesions were not recognized or diagnosed as ALM in situ in the first place. Excision of the primary lesion with variable operative margin was done as an initial treatment. Recurrence was observed in three patients and one developed invasive ALM and lymph node metastasis. Integration of all available information concerning the clinical presentation, histopathology, and dermoscopic findings is very important and can lead to the best classification for correct diagnosis. Lack of knowledge upon clinical course and optimal margin to control ALM in situ provokes the need for further studies with longer follow up and larger number of cases.
The Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás property for operators from $\mathcal{C}(K)$ to uniformly convex spaces
Sun Kwang Kim,Han Ju Lee
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2014.06.081
Abstract: We show that the pair $(C(K),X)$ has the Bishop-Phelps-Bolloba\'as property for operators if $K$ is a compact Hausdorff space and $X$ is a uniformly convex space.
Simultaneously continuous retraction and Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás type theorem
Sun Kwang Kim,Han Ju Lee
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We study the existence of a retraction from the dual space $X^*$ of a (real or complex) Banach space $X$ onto its unit ball $B_{X^*}$ which is uniformly continuous in norm topology and continuous in weak-$*$ topology. Such a retraction is called a uniformly simultaneously continuous retraction. It is shown that if $X$ has a normalized unconditional Schauder basis with unconditional basis constant 1 and $X^*$ is uniformly monotone, then a uniformly simultaneously continuous retraction from $X^*$ onto $B_{X^*}$ exists. It is also shown that if $\{X_i\}$ is a family of separable Banach spaces whose duals are uniformly convex with moduli of convexity $\delta_i(\varepsilon)$ such that $\inf_i \delta_i(\varepsilon)>0$ and $X= \left[\bigoplus X_i\right]_{c_0}$ or $X=\left[\bigoplus X_i\right]_{\ell_p}$ for $1\le p<\infty$, then a uniformly simultaneously continuous retraction exists from $X^*$ onto $B_{X^*}$. The relation between the existence of a uniformly simultaneously continuous retraction and the Bishsop-Phelps-Bollob\'as property for operators is investigated and it is proved that the existence of a uniformly simultaneously continuous retraction from $X^*$ onto its unit ball implies that a pair $(X, C_0(K))$ has the Bishop-Phelps-Bollob\'as property for every locally compact Hausdorff spaces $K$. As a corollary, we prove that $(C_0(S), C_0(K))$ has the Bishop-Phelps-Bollob\'as property if $C_0(S)$ and $C_0(K)$ are the spaces of all real-valued continuous functions vanishing at infinity on locally compact metric space $S$ and locally compact Hausdorff space $K$ respectively.
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