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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2760 matches for " Kwang-Il Seon "
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Can the Lyman Continuum leaked out of H II regions explain Diffuse Ionized Gas?
Kwang-Il Seon
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/703/1/1159
Abstract: We present an attempt to explain the diffuse H_alpha emission of a face-on galaxy M 51 with the ``standard'' photoionization model, in which the Lyman continuum (Lyc) escaping from H II regions propagates large distances into the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The diffuse H_alpha emission of M 51 is analyzed using thin slab models and exponential disk models in the context of the ``on-the-spot'' approximation. The scale height of the ionized gas needed to explain the diffuse H_alpha emission with the scenario is found to be of the order of ~ 1-2 kpc, consistent with those of our Galaxy and edge-on galaxies. The model also provides a vertical profile, when the galaxy is viewed edge-on, consisting of two-exponential components. However, it is found that an incredibly low absorption coefficient of kappa_0 ~ 0.4-0.8 kpc^{-1} at the galactic plane, or, equivalently, an effective cross-section as low as sigma_eff ~ 10^{-5} of the photoionization cross-section at 912A is required to allow the stellar Lyc photons to travel through the H I disk. Such a low absorption coefficient is out of accord with the properties of the ISM. Furthermore, we found that even the model that has the DIG phase only and no H I gas phase shows highly concentrated H_alpha emissions around H II regions, and can account for only < 26% of the H_alpha luminosity of the DIG. This result places a strong constraint on the ionizing source of the DIG. We also report that the H_alpha intensity distribution functions not only of the DIG, but also of H II regions in M 51, appear to be lognormal.
Lognormal intensity distribution of the FUV continuum background shortward of Ly-alpha
Kwang-Il Seon
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/772/1/57
Abstract: The diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) continuum radiation "longward" of Ly-alpha (1216A) is well known to correlate with the dust emission at 100 um. However, it has been claimed that the FUV continuum background "shortward" of Ly-alpha shows very weak or no correlation with the 100 um emission. In this paper, the observational data of the diffuse FUV radiation by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer is reexamined in order to investigate the correlation between the diffuse FUV radiation shortward of Ly-alpha and the 100 um emission. Large fluctuations were confirmed in the linear-linear correlation plots, but good correlations were found in the log-log plots. The large fluctuations in the linear-linear plots, and thus poor correlations, between the FUV and 100 um intensities were attributed to the lognormal property of the FUV intensity distribution. The standard deviation of the intensity distribution of the FUV radiation shortward of Ly-alpha was found to be sigma_log I = 0.16-0.25. The result is consistent with that obtained not only for the FUV radiation longward of 1216A, but also with the dust column density measurements of various molecular clouds. This implies that most of the diffuse FUV radiation shortward of Ly-alpha is dust-scattered light in the turbulent interstellar medium. The diffuse FUV data obtained from the Voyager missions was also investigated. However, much wider random fluctuations were found compared with the FUSE data, which is most likely due to the systematic difficulties in data reduction of the Voyager data.
The Column Density Variance in Turbulent Interstellar Media: A Fractal Model Approach
Kwang-Il Seon
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/761/2/L17
Abstract: Fractional Brownian motion (fBm) structures are used to investigate the dependency of column density variance ({\sigma}_{\ln N}^2) in the turbulent interstellar medium on the variance of three-dimensional density ({\sigma}_{\ln\rho}^2) and the power-law slope of the density power spectrum. We provide quantitative expressions to infer the three-dimensional density variance, which is not directly observable, from the observable column density variance and spectral slope. We also investigate the relationship between the column density variance and sonic Mach number (Ms) in the hydrodynamic (HD) regime by assuming the spectral slope and density variance as functions of sonic Mach number, as obtained from the HD turbulence simulations. They are related by the expression {\sigma}_{\ln N}^2 = A{\sigma}_{\ln\rho}^2 = Aln(1+b^2M^2), suggested by Burkhart & Lazarian for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) case. The proportional constant A varies from ~ 0.2 to ~ 0.4 in the HD regime as the turbulence forcing parameter b increases from 1/3 (purely solenoidal forcing) to 1 (purely compressive forcing). It is also discussed that the parameter A is lowered in the presence of a magnetic field.
Dust Scattering In Turbulent Media: Correlation Between The Scattered Light and Dust Column Density
Kwang-Il Seon,Adolf N. Witt
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/778/2/L40
Abstract: Radiative transfer models in a spherical, turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) in which the photon source is situated at the center are calculated to investigate the correlation between the scattered light and the dust column density. The medium is modeled using fractional Brownian motion structures that are appropriate for turbulent ISM. The correlation plot between the scattered light and optical depth shows substantial scatter and deviation from simple proportionality. It was also found that the overall density contrast is smoothed out in scattered light. In other words, there is an enhancement of the dust-scattered flux in low-density regions, while the scattered flux is suppressed in high-density regions. The correlation becomes less significant as the scattering becomes closer to be isotropic and the medium becomes more turbulent. Therefore, the scattered light observed in near-infrared wavelengths would show much weaker correlation than the observations in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. We also find that the correlation plot between scattered lights at two different wavelengths shows a tighter correlation than that of the scattered light versus the optical depth.
On the origins of the diffuse H-alpha emission: Ionized gas or dust-scattered H-alpha halos?
Kwang-Il Seon,Adolf N. Witt
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/758/2/109
Abstract: It is known that the diffuse H-alpha emission outside of bright H II regions not only are very extended, but also can occur in distinct patches or filaments far from H II regions, and the line ratios of [S II] 6716/H-alpha and [N II] 6583/H-alpha observed far from bright H II regions are generally higher than those in the H II regions. These observations have been regarded as evidence against the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H-alpha emission (including other optical lines), and the effect of dust scattering has been neglected in studies on the diffuse H-alpha emission. In this paper, we reexamine the arguments against dust scattering and find that the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H-alpha emission cannot be ruled out. As opposed to the previous contention, the expected dust- scattered H-alpha halos surrounding H II regions are, in fact, in good agreement with the observed H-alpha morphology. We calculate an extensive set of photoionization models by varying elemental abundances, ionizing stellar types, and clumpiness of the interstellar medium (ISM) and find that the observed line ratios of [S II]/H-alpha, [N II]/H-alpha, and He I 5876/H-alpha in the diffuse ISM accord well with the dust-scattered halos around H II regions, which are photoionized by late O- and/or early B-type stars. We also demonstrate that the H-alpha absorption feature in the underlying continuum from the dust-scattered starlight ("diffuse galactic light") and unresolved stars is able to substantially increase the [S II]/H-alpha and [N II]/H-alpha line ratios in the diffuse ISM.
Is Dust Cloud around $λ$ Orionis a Ring or a Shell, or Both?
Dukhang Lee,Kwang-Il Seon,Young-Soo Jo
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The dust cloud around $\lambda$ Orionis is observed to be circularly symmetric with a large angular extent ($\approx$ 8 degrees). However, whether the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the cloud is shell- or ring-like has not yet been fully resolved. We study the 3D structure using a new approach that combines a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for ultraviolet (UV) scattered light and an inverse Abel transform, which gives a detailed 3D radial density profile from a two-dimensional column density map of a spherically symmetric cloud. By comparing the radiative transfer models for a spherical shell cloud and that for a ring cloud, we find that only the shell model can reproduce the radial profile of the scattered UV light, observed using the S2/68 UV observation, suggesting a dust shell structure. However, the inverse Abel transform applied to the column density data from the Pan-STARRS1 dust reddening map results in negative values at a certain radius range of the density profile, indicating the existence of additional, non-spherical clouds near the nebular boundary. The additional cloud component is assumed to be of toroidal ring shape; we subtracted from the column density to obtain a positive, radial density profile using the inverse Abel transform. The resulting density structure, composed of a toroidal ring and a spherical shell, is also found to give a good fit to the UV scattered light profile. We therefore conclude that the cloud around $\lambda$ Ori is composed of both ring and shell structures.
Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts
Jong-Ho Shinn,Kwang-Il Seon
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dust of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly-inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are in general well reproduced by two dust layers and one light-source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR_UV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the rest three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of the extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFR_UV and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms possible to produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.
Diffuse Extraplanar Dust in NGC 891
Kwang-Il Seon,Adolf N. Witt,Jong-Ho Shinn,Il-Joong Kim
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/785/1/L18
Abstract: We report the detection of vertically extended far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-UV emissions in an edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891, which we interpret as being due to dust-scattered starlight. Three-dimensional radiative transfer models are used to investigate the content of the extraplanar dust that is required to explain the UV emission. The UV halos are well reproduced by a radiative transfer model with two exponential dust disks, one with a scaleheight of $\approx$ 0.2 - 0.25 kpc and the other with a scaleheight of $\approx$ 1.2 - 2.0 kpc. The central face-on optical depth of the geometrically thick disk is found to be $\tau_{thick} \approx$ 0.3 - 0.5 at B-band. The results indicate that the dust mass at |z| > 2 kpc is $\approx$ 3 - 5% of the total dust mass, which accord well with the recent Herschel sub-millimeter observation. Our results, together with the recent discovery of the UV halos in other edge-on galaxies, suggest the widespread existence of the geometrically thick dust layer above the galactic plane in spirals.
Far-Ultraviolet Spectral Images of the Vela Supernova Remnant: Supplements and Comparisons with other Wavelength Images
Il-Joong Kim,Kwang-Il Seon,Kyoung-Wook Min,Wonyong Han,Jerry Edelstein
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/761/2/135
Abstract: We present the improved far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission-line images of the entire Vela supernova remnant (SNR) using newly processed SPEAR/FIMS data. The incomplete C III {\lambda}977 and O VI {\lambda}{\lambda}1032, 1038 images presented in the previous study are updated to cover the whole region. The C IV {\lambda}{\lambda}1548, 1551 image with a higher resolution and new images at Si IV {\lambda}{\lambda}1394, 1403, O IV] {\lambda}1404, He II {\lambda}1640.5, and O III] {\lambda}{\lambda}1661, 1666 are also shown. Comparison of emission line ratios for two enhanced FUV regions reveals that the FUV emissions of the east enhanced FUV region may be affected by nonradiative shocks of another very young SNR, the Vela Jr. SNR (RX J0852.0-4622, G266.6-1.2). This result is the first FUV detection that is likely associated with the Vela Jr. SNR, supporting previous arguments that the Vela Jr. SNR is close to us. The comparison of the improved FUV images with soft X-ray images shows that a FUV filamentary feature forms the boundary of the northeast-southwest asymmetrical sections of the X-ray shell. The southwest FUV features are characterized as the region where the Vela SNR is interacting with slightly denser ambient medium within the dim X-ray southwest section. From a comparison with the H{\alpha} image, we identify a ring-like H{\alpha} feature overlapped with an extended hot X-ray feature of similar size and two local peaks of C IV emission. Their morphologies are expected when the H{\alpha} ring is in direct contact with the near or far side of the Vela SNR.
AKARI Near-infrared Spectral Observations of Shocked H2 Gas of the Supernova Remnant IC 443
Jong-Ho Shinn,Bon-Chul Koo,Kwang-Il Seon,Ho-Gyu Lee
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/732/2/124
Abstract: We present near-infrared (2.5 - 5.0 um) spectra of shocked H2 gas in the supernova remnant IC 443, obtained with the satellite AKARI. Three shocked clumps-known as B, C, and G-and one background region were observed, and only H2 emission lines were detected. Except the clump B, the extinctioncorrected level population shows the ortho-to-para ratio of ~ 3.0. From the level population of the clumps C and G-both AKARI's only and the one extended with previous mid-infrared observations-we found that the v = 0 levels are more populated than the v > 0 levels at a fixed level energy, which cannot be reproduced by any combination of H2 gas in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. The populations are described by the two-density power-law thermal admixture model, revised to include the collisions with H atoms. We attributed the lower (n(H2)=10^(2.8-3.8) cm-3) and higher (n(H2)=10^(5.4-5.8) cm-3) density gases to the shocked H2 gas behind C-type and J-type shocks, respectively, based on several arguments including the obtained high H I abundance n(H I)/n(H2)=0.01. Under the hierarchical picture of molecular clouds, the C-type and J-type shocks likely propagate into "clumps" and "clouds" (interclump media), respectively. The power-law index b of 1.6 and 3.5, mainly determined by the lower density gas, is attributed to the shock-velocity diversity, which may be a natural result during shock-cloud interactions. According to our results, H2 v = 1 - 0 S(1) emission is mainly from J-shocks propagating into interclump media. The H2 emission was also detected at the background region, and this diffuse H2 emission may originate from collisional process in addition to the ultraviolet photon pumping.
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