Abstract:
We bosonize the long-wavelength excitations of interacting fermions in arbitrary dimension by directly applying a suitable Hubbard-Stratonowich transformation to the Grassmannian generating functional of the fermionic correlation functions. With this technique we derive a surprisingly simple expression for the single-particle Greens-function, which is valid for arbitrary interaction strength and can describe Fermi- as well as Luttinger liquids. Our approach sheds further light on the relation between bosonization and the random-phase approximation, and enables us to study screening in a non-perturbative way.

Abstract:
We use a bosonization approach to show that the three dimensional Coulomb interaction in coupled metallic chains leads to a Luttinger liquid for vanishing inter-chain hopping $t_{\bot}$, and to a Fermi liquid for any finite $t_{\bot}$. However, for small $t_{\bot} \neq 0$ the Greens-function satisfies a homogeneity relation with a non-trivial exponent $\gamma_{cb}$ in a large intermediate regime. Our results offer a simple explanation for the large values of $\gamma_{cb}$ inferred from recent photoemission data from quasi one-dimensional conductors and might have some relevance for the understanding of the unusual properties of the high-temperature superconductors.

Abstract:
We use our recently developed functional bosonization approach to bosonize interacting fermions in arbitrary dimension $d$ beyond the Gaussian approximation. Even in $d=1$ the finite curvature of the energy dispersion at the Fermi surface gives rise to interactions between the bosons. In higher dimensions scattering processes describing momentum transfer between different patches on the Fermi surface (around-the-corner processes) are an additional source for corrections to the Gaussian approximation. We derive an explicit expression for the leading correction to the bosonized Hamiltonian and the irreducible self-energy of the bosonic propagator that takes the finite curvature as well as around-the-corner processes into account. In the special case that around-the-corner scattering is negligible, we show that the self-energy correction to the Gaussian propagator is negligible if the dimensionless quantities $ ( \frac{q_{c} }{ k_{F}} )^d F_{0} [ 1 + F_{0} ]^{-1} \frac{\mu}{\nu^{\alpha}} | \frac{ \partial \nu^{\alpha} }{ \partial \mu} |$ are small compared with unity for all patches $\alpha$. Here $q_{c}$ is the cutoff of the interaction in wave-vector space, $k_{F}$ is the Fermi wave-vector, $\mu$ is the chemical potential, $F_{0}$ is the usual dimensionless Landau interaction-parameter, and $\nu^{\alpha} $ is the {\it{local}} density of states associated with patch $\alpha$. We also show that the well known cancellation between vertex- and self-energy corrections in one-dimensional systems, which is responsible for the fact that the random-phase approximation for the density-density correlation function is exact in $d=1$, exists also in $d> 1$, provided (1) the interaction cutoff $q_{c}$ is small compared with $k_{F}$, and (2) the energy dispersion is locally linearized at the Fermi the Fermi surface. Finally, we suggest a new systematic method to calculate corrections to the RPA, which is based on the perturbative calculation of the irreducible bosonic self-energy arising from the non-Gaussian terms of the bosonized Hamiltonian.

Abstract:
We use higher-dimensional bosonization to study the normal state of electrons in weakly coupled metallic chains interacting with long-range Coulomb forces. Particular attention is paid to the crossover between Luttinger and Fermi liquid behavior as the interchain hopping is varied. Although in the physically interesting case of finite but small interchain hopping the quasi-particle residue does not vanish, the single-particle Green's function exhibits the signature of Luttinger liquid behavior (i.e. anomalous scaling and spin-charge separation) in a large intermediate parameter regime. Using realistic parameters, we find that the scaling behavior in this regime is characterized by an anomalous dimension of the order of unity, as suggested by recent experiments on quasi-one-dimensional conductors. Our calculation gives new insights into the approximations inherent in higher-dimensional bosonization. We also compare our approach with other methods.

Abstract:
Numerous correlated electron systems exhibit a strongly scale-dependent behavior. Upon lowering the energy scale, collective phenomena, bound states, and new effective degrees of freedom emerge. Typical examples include (i) competing magnetic, charge, and pairing instabilities in two-dimensional electron systems, (ii) the interplay of electronic excitations and order parameter fluctuations near thermal and quantum phase transitions in metals, (iii) correlation effects such as Luttinger liquid behavior and the Kondo effect showing up in linear and non-equilibrium transport through quantum wires and quantum dots. The functional renormalization group is a flexible and unbiased tool for dealing with such scale-dependent behavior. Its starting point is an exact functional flow equation, which yields the gradual evolution from a microscopic model action to the final effective action as a function of a continuously decreasing energy scale. Expanding in powers of the fields one obtains an exact hierarchy of flow equations for vertex functions. Truncations of this hierarchy have led to powerful new approximation schemes. This review is a comprehensive introduction to the functional renormalization group method for interacting Fermi systems. We present a self-contained derivation of the exact flow equations and describe frequently used truncation schemes. Reviewing selected applications we then show how approximations based on the functional renormalization group can be fruitfully used to improve our understanding of correlated fermion systems.

Abstract:
Exact numerical results for the full counting statistics (FCS) for a one-dimensional tight-binding model of noninteracting electrons are presented without using an idealized measuring device. The two initially separate subsystems are connected at t=0 and the exact time evolution for the large but finite combined system is obtained numerically. At zero temperature the trace formula derived by Klich is used to to calculate the FCS via a finite dimensional determinant. Even for surprisingly short times the approximate description of the time evolution with the help of scattering states agrees well with the exact result for the local current matrix elements. An additional approximation has to be made to recover the Levitov-Lesovik formula in the limit where the system size becomes infinite and afterwards the long time limit is addressed. The new derivation of the Levitov-Lesovik formula is generalized to more general geometries like a Y-junction enclosing a magnetic flux.

Abstract:
A simple model of noninteracting electrons with a separable one-body potential is used to discuss the possible pole structure of single particle Green's functions for fermions on unphysical sheets in the complex frequency plane as a function of the system parameters. The poles in the exact Green's function can cross the imaginary axis, in contrast to recent claims that such a behaviour is unphysical. As the Green's function of the model has the same functional form as an approximate Green's function of coupled Luttinger liquids no definite conclusions concerning the concept of "confined coherence" can be drawn from the locations of the poles of this Green's function.

Abstract:
The acceleration theorem for Bloch electrons in a homogenous external field is usually presented using quasiclassical arguments. In quantum mechanical versions the Heisenberg equations of motion for an operator $\hat {\vec k}(t)$ are presented mostly without properly defining this operator. This leads to the surprising fact that the generally accepted version of the theorem is incorrect for the most natural definition of $\hat {\vec k}$. This operator is shown not to obey canonical commutation relations with the position operator. A similar result is shown for the phase operators defined via the Klein factors which take care of the change of particle number in the bosonization of the field operator in the description of interacting fermions in one dimension. The phase operators are also shown not to obey canonical commutation relations with the corresponding particle number operators. Implications of this fact are discussed for Tomonaga-Luttinger type models.

Abstract:
The theoretical description of interacting fermions in one spatial dimension is simplified by the fact that the low energy excitations can be described in terms of bosonic degrees of freedom. This fermion-boson transmutation (FBT) which lies at the heart of the Luttinger liquid concept is presented in a way which does not require a knowledge of quantum field theoretical methods. As the basic facts can already be introduced for noninteracting fermions they are mainly discussed. As an application we use the FBT to present exact results for the low temperature thermodynamics and the occupation numbers in the microcanonical and the canonical ensemble. They are compared with the standard grand canonical results.

Abstract:
The exact nonequilibrium time evolution of the momentum distribution for a finite many particle system in one dimension with a linear energy dispersion coupled to optical phonons is presented. For distinguishable particles the influence function of the phonon bath can be evaluated also for a finite particle density in the thermodynamic limit. In the case of fermions the exact fulfillment of the Pauli principle involves a sum over permutations of the electrons and the numerical evaluation is restricted to a finite number of electrons. In the dynamics the antisymmetry of the wavefunction shows up in the obvious Pauli blocking of momentum states as well as more subtle interference effects. The model shows the expected physical features known from approximate treatments of more realistic models for the relaxation in the energy regime far from the bottom of the conduction band and provides an excellent testing ground for quantum kinetic equations.