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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210360 matches for " Kurt L. Adelberger "
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Spectroscopy of Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field
Charles C. Steidel,Mauro Giavalisco,Mark Dickinson,Kurt L. Adelberger
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/118019
Abstract: We report on the initial results of a spectroscopic investigation of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field which exhibit spectral discontinuities between the F450W and F300W passbands, indicative of the presence of the Lyman continuum break in the redshift range 2.4 < z < 3.4. We have employed color selection criteria similar to those we have used for selecting high redshift galaxy candidates from ground--based images. We find that, as for the ground--based color selection, the criteria are very successful in selecting high redshift objects. Of the 8 galaxies observed (selected from a list of 23 candidates with magnitudes equivalent to R <= 25.3, five have confirmed redshifts in the range 2.59 <= z <= 3.22, with the remaining 3 being indeterminate because of contamination from nearby brighter objects. As expected, the HST filter system is sensitive to a somewhat broader range of redshifts than our ground--based U_nGR filter system, and therefore the surveyed volume per unit area on the sky is correspondingly larger. The distribution of candidates on the plane of the sky is clearly non--uniform, consistent with the available ground--based data on the high redshift galaxies. Most Lyman break objects in the Hubble Deep Field exhibit a similar range of morphological properties to the z > 3 galaxies we have previously identified in other fields, characterized by very compact cores (some with multiple components) with half--light radii of 0.2-0.3 arcseconds, often surrounded by more diffuse and asymmetric ``halos''. A few of the brighter HDF Lyman break galaxies, however, have particularly unusual morphologies.
The Discovery of Primeval Galaxies and the Epoch of Galaxy Formation
Max Pettini,Charles C. Steidel,Kurt L. Adelberger,. Melinda Kellogg,Mark Dickinson,Mauro Giavalisco
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We review the steps which have led to the discovery of a widespread population of objects at z = 3 with many of the characteristics which we expect for primeval galaxies, and emphasize in particular the advantages of a colour selection technique which targets the Lyman discontinuity at 912 Angstroms. Star forming galaxies at z = 3 resemble local starbursts, although they are typically more luminous by more than one order of magnitude. The ultraviolet continuum is dominated by the integrated light of O and early B type stars and shows prominent interstellar absorption lines which are often blueshifted relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy, indicating highly energetic outflows in the interstellar medium. Lyman alpha emission is generally weak, probably as a result of resonant scattering. The spectral slope of the ultraviolet continuum and the strength of the Hbeta emission line, which we have detected in a few cases with pilot observations in the infrared K band, suggest that some interstellar dust is already present in these young galaxies and that it attenuates their UV luminosities by a factor of about 3. The efficiency of our photometric selection technique has allowed us to establish that large scale concentrations of galaxies were already in place at z = 3, possibly the precursors of galaxy clusters as they as they were beginning to decouple from the Hubble expansion. In the context of Cold Dark Matter models of structure formation, the observed clustering of the z~3 galaxies suggests that they are associated with dark matter halos of mass greater than 10^12 solar masses. We conclude by pointing out the need for infrared space observatories, such as the proposed Next Generation Space Telescope, for pushing the quest for the origin of galaxies beyond z=5.
The Spectra of Star Forming Galaxies at High Redshift
Max Pettini,Charles C. Steidel,Mark Dickinson,Melinda Kellogg,Mauro Giavalisco,Kurt L. Adelberger
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1063/1.53800
Abstract: We review the spectral properties of the population of star forming galaxies at z = 3 discovered using a colour selection technique which targets the Lyman discontinuity at 912 Angstroms. The UV luminosity of the typical z = 3 galaxy exceeds by more than one order of magnitude that of the most luminous starbursts in the nearby universe, although the maximum star formation intensity (SFR per unit area) is within the limits found in local surveys. We consider in detail the likely magnitude of dust extinction and conclude that published estimates of the volume-averaged star formation rate at high z need to be revised to higher values by a factor of about 3. This correction improves the agreement between the observations and recent theoretical predictions. Lyman alpha emission is generally weak, most likely as a result of resonant scattering. The large equivalent widths of the strongest interstellar lines and their systematic blueshift (by up to several hundred km/s) relative to the Lyman alpha emission line are indicative of highly energetic outflows in the interstellar medium. Pilot observations have detected the redshifted Hbeta and [O III] emission lines in the K band. The widths of these features imply dynamical masses of approximately 10^{10} solar masses for the innermost star forming regions; the total masses involved are likely to exceed 10^{12} solar masses.
Extremely Red Objects in the Field of QSO 1213-0017: A Galaxy Concentration at z=1.31
Michael C. Liu,Arjun Dey,James R. Graham,Charles C. Steidel,Kurt L. Adelberger
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We have discovered an excess of extremely red objects (EROs) surrounding the z=2.69 quasar QSO 1213-0017 (UM 485). Optical/IR colors for these galaxies are consistent with z=1-2 ellipticals, and there are at least 5 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at =1.31. Keck optical spectra for 3 of the red galaxies show rest-frame UV breaks resembling local elliptical galaxies. Our initial results suggest a coherent structure in redshift, possibly arising from a massive galaxy cluster.
Infared Observations of Nebular Emission Lines from Galaxies at z = 3
Max Pettini,Melinda Kellogg,Charles C. Steidel,Mark Dickinson,Kurt L. Adelberger,Mauro Giavalisco
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306431
Abstract: We present the first results from a program of near-infrared spectroscopy aimed at studying the familiar rest-frame optical emission lines from the H II regions of Lyman break galaxies at z = 3. By targeting redshifts which bring the lines of interest into gaps between the strong OH sky emission, we have been successful in detecting Balmer and [O III] emission lines in all five galaxies observed so far with CGS4 on UKIRT. For a Salpeter IMF and a H_0 = 70 km/s/Mpc, q_0 = 0.1 cosmology, the Hbeta luminosities uncorrected for dust extinction imply star formation rates of 20 - 270 solar masses per year. On the basis of the present limited sample it appears that an extinction of 1 - 2 magnitudes at 1500 A may be typical of Lyman break galaxies. This value is consistent with recent estimates of dust obscuration in star forming galaxies at z < 1, and does not require a substantial revision of the broad picture of star formation over the Hubble time proposed by Madau et al. (1996). In four out of five cases the velocity dispersion of the emission line gas is sigma = 70 km/s, while in the fifth the line widths are nearly three times larger. Virial masses in the range from 1 x 10^{10} to 5 x 10^{10} solar masses are suggested, but both velocities and masses could be higher because our observations are only sensitive to the brightest cores of these systems where the line widths may not sample the full gravitational potential. The relative redshifts of interstellar absorption, nebular emission, and Lyman alpha emission lines differ by several hundred km/s and suggest that large-scale outflows may be a common characteristic of Lyman break galaxies.
The Angular Clustering of Lyman-Break Galaxies at Redshift z=3
Mauro Giavalisco,Charles C. Steidel,Kurt L. Adelberger,Mark E. Dickinson,Max Pettini,Melinda Kellogg
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306027
Abstract: We have measured the angular correlation function w(theta) for a sample of 871 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3. Fitting a power-law to a weighted average of w(theta) from 5 fields, we find the amplitude to be A_w=2 arcsec^{\beta} and the slope \beta=0.9. The slope is the same as in the local and moderate redshift universe. A slope \beta=0.25 or shallower is ruled out by the data at the 99.9% confidence level. Because N(z) of LBGs is well determined from 376 spectroscopic redshifts, the real-space correlation function can be derived from the angular one through the Limber transform. This inversion is rather insensitive to the still relatively large errors on A_w and \beta, and the spatial correlation length is much more tightly constrained than either of these parameters. We estimate r_0=3.3 -0.6 +0.7 (2.1 -0.5 +0.4) h^{-1} Mpc (comoving) for q_0=0.1 (0.5) at z=3.04 (h is in units of 100 km/s/Mpc). The correlation length of LBGs at z=3 is comparable to that of present-day spiral galaxies and is only about 50% smaller than that of the ellipticals; it is as large or larger than any measured in galaxy samples at 0.3
The Ultraviolet Spectrum of MS 1512-cB58: An Insight into Lyman Break Galaxies
Max Pettini,Charles C. Steidel,Kurt L. Adelberger,Mark Dickinson,Mauro Giavalisco
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308176
Abstract: We present an intermediate resolution, high S/N spectrum of the z = 2.7268 galaxy MS 1512-cB58, obtained with LRIS on the Keck I telescope and covering the rest frame far-UV from 1150 to 1930 A. Gravitational lensing by a foreground cluster boosts the flux from cB58 by a factor of about 30 and provides the opportunity for a first quantitative study of the physical properties of star forming galaxies at high redshift. Our main results are as follows. The ultraviolet spectral properties of cB58 are remarkably similar to those of nearby star forming galaxies. The P-Cygni profiles of CIV and NV are best matched by continuous star formation with a Salpeter IMF extending beyond 50 solar masses---we find no evidence for either a flatter IMF (at the high mass end), or an IMF deficient in the most massive stars. There are clues in our data that the metallicity of both the stars and the gas is a few times below solar. Our best estimate, approximately equal to 1/4 solar, is 3 times higher than the typical metallicity of damped Lyman alpha systems at the same redshift, consistent with the proposal that the galaxies which dominate the H I absorption cross-section are generally forming stars at a slower rate than L* Lyman break galaxies like cB58. The relative velocities of the stellar lines, interstellar absorption, and H II emission indicate the existence of large-scale outflows in the interstellar medium of cB58, with a bulk outward motion of 200 km/s and a mass loss rate of approximately 60 solar masses per year, roughly comparable to the star formation rate. Such galactic winds may well be the mechanism which self-regulates star formation, distributes metals over large volumes and allows the escape of ionizing photons into the IGM.
Extremely Red Objects in the Field of QSO 1213-0017: A Galaxy Concentration at z=1.31
Michael C. Liu,Arjun Dey,James R. Graham,Kevin A. Bundy,Charles C. Steidel,Kurt L. Adelberger,Mark E. Dickinson
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301399
Abstract: We have discovered a concentration of extremely red objects (EROs; R-K>6) in the field of the z=2.69 quasar QSO 1213-0017 (UM 485), which is significantly overabundant compared to the field ERO surface density. The optical/near-IR colors of the EROs and numerous other red galaxies in this field are consistent with elliptical galaxies at z=1-2. HST optical images for a subset of galaxies show regular morphologies, most of them being disky or diffuse and without any obvious evidence for interactions. Ground-based IR images show similar morphologies, indicating any dust reddening in these objects is spatially uniform. Optical spectroscopy with the W. M. Keck Telescope has found that four of the red galaxies lie at =1.31, and a fifth lies in the foreground at z=1.20. Of the =1.31 galaxies, one is a reddened AGN while the remaining three have rest-frame UV absorption-line spectra characteristic of old (few Gyr) stellar populations, similar to the old red galaxy LBDS 53W091 at z=1.55. Including the MgII absorber seen in the QSO spectrum, we find five galaxies at =1.31 spread over 1.5 h_50^{-1} Mpc on the sky. These results suggest we have discovered a coherent structure of old galaxies at high-redshift, possibly associated with a massive galaxy cluster.
New Observations of the Interstellar Medium in the Lyman Break Galaxy MS 1512-cB58
Max Pettini,Samantha A. Rix,Charles C. Steidel,Kurt L. Adelberger,Matthew P. Hunt,Alice E. Shapley
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/339355
Abstract: We present the results of a detailed study of the interstellar medium of MS 1512-cB58, an L* Lyman break galaxy at z = 2.7276, based on new spectral observations obtained with the Echelle Spectrograph and Imager on the Keck II telescope at 58 km/s resolution. We focus in particular on the chemical abundances and kinematics of the interstellar gas and our main findings are as follows. Even at this relatively early epoch, the ISM of this galaxy is already highly enriched in elements released by Type II supernovae; the abundances of O, Mg, Si, P, and S are all about 2/5 of their solar values. In contrast, N and the Fe-peak elements Mn, Fe, and Ni are underabundant by a factor of about 3. Based on current ideas of stellar nucleosynthesis, these results can be understood if most of the metal enrichment in cB58 has taken place within the last 300 million years, the timescale for the release of N from intermediate mass stars. cB58 appears to be an example of a galaxy in the process of converting its gas into stars on a few dynamical timescales; quite possibly we are witnessing the formation of a galactic bulge or an elliptical galaxy. The energetic star formation activity has stirred the interstellar medium to high velocities of up to 1000 km/s. The net effect is a bulk outflow of the ISM at a speed of 255 km/s and at a rate which exceeds the star formation rate. It is unclear whether this gas will be lost or retained by the galaxy. We point out that the chemical and kinematic properties of cB58 are markedly different from those of most damped Lyman alpha systems at the same redshift.
A search for the submillimetre counterparts to Lyman break galaxies
Scott C. Chapman,Douglas Scott,Charles C. Steidel,Colin Borys,Mark Halpern,Simon L. Morris,Kurt L. Adelberger,Mark Dickinson,Mauro Giavalisco,Max Pettini
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03866.x
Abstract: We have carried out targetted sub-mm observations as part of a programme to explore the connection between the rest-frame UV and far-IR properties of star-forming galaxies at high redshift, which is currently poorly understood. On the one hand the Lyman break technique is very effective at selecting z~3 galaxies. On the other hand `blank field' imaging in the sub-mm seems to turn up sources routinely, amongst which some are star forming galaxies at similar redshifts. Already much work has been done searching for optical identifications of objects detected using the SCUBA instrument. Here we have taken the opposite approach, performing sub-mm photometry for a sample of Lyman break galaxies whose UV properties imply high star formation rates. The total signal from our Lyman break sample is undetected in the sub-mm, at an RMS level of 0.5 mJy, which implies that the population of Lyman break galaxies does not constitute a large part of the recently detected blank-field sub-mm sources. However, our one detection suggests that with reasonable SCUBA integrations we might expect to detect those few LBGs that are far-IR brightest.
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