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An Effective Procedure for Computing "Uncomputable" Functions
Kurt Ammon
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We give an effective procedure that produces a natural number in its output from any natural number in its input, that is, it computes a total function. The elementary operations of the procedure are Turing-computable. The procedure has a second input which can contain the Goedel number of any Turing-computable total function whose range is a subset of the set of the Goedel numbers of all Turing-computable total functions. We prove that the second input cannot be set to the Goedel number of any Turing-computable function that computes the output from any natural number in its first input. In this sense, there is no Turing program that computes the output from its first input. The procedure is used to define creative procedures which compute functions that are not Turing-computable. We argue that creative procedures model an aspect of reasoning that cannot be modeled by Turing machines.
Informal Concepts in Machines
Kurt Ammon
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: This paper constructively proves the existence of an effective procedure generating a computable (total) function that is not contained in any given effectively enumerable set of such functions. The proof implies the existence of machines that process informal concepts such as computable (total) functions beyond the limits of any given Turing machine or formal system, that is, these machines can, in a certain sense, "compute" function values beyond these limits. We call these machines creative. We argue that any "intelligent" machine should be capable of processing informal concepts such as computable (total) functions, that is, it should be creative. Finally, we introduce hypotheses on creative machines which were developed on the basis of theoretical investigations and experiments with computer programs. The hypotheses say that machine intelligence is the execution of a self-developing procedure starting from any universal programming language and any input.
Beyond Turing Machines
Kurt Ammon
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: This paper discusses "computational" systems capable of "computing" functions not computable by predefined Turing machines if the systems are not isolated from their environment. Roughly speaking, these systems can change their finite descriptions by interacting with their environment.
Fetuin-A Characteristics during and after Pregnancy: Result from a Case Control Pilot Study
Serdar Farhan,Ammon Handisurya,Jelena Todoric,Andrea Tura,Giovanni Pacini,Oswald Wagner,Katharina Klein,Rudolf Jarai,Kurt Huber,Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/896736
Abstract: Objective. Fetuin-A has been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We investigated fetuin-A levels during and after pregnancy in women with GDM. Fetuin-A measurements were performed in 10 women with GDM and 10 age and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy pregnant women. All women underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in and 3 months after gestation. Results. Fasting fetuin-A correlated with BMI in women with former GDM ( , ) but showed no association with parameters of glucose tolerance in women with GDM or post-GDM. GDM featured significantly lower insulin sensitivity and higher insulin and C-peptide secretion profiles compared to NGT during pregnancy ( ). Fasting and postprandial fetuin-A did not differ between groups, neither during nor after pregnancy. Conclusion. Fetuin-A is not influenced by glucose tolerance during or after pregnancy or acute glucose elevations following glucose ingestion in young women, but closely relates to BMI early postpartum. 1. Introduction Fetuin-A is a potent systemic calcification inhibitor [1]. Beside this function fetuin-A has been shown to interact with insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, thereby inducing insulin resistance in rodents [2, 3]. In cross-sectional human studies, fetuin-A has been linked to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome [4]. Furthermore fetuin-A has been linked to incident diabetes mellitus in the Health ABC study [5]. Stefan et al. were able to demonstrate a relation between fetuin-A and liver fat accumulation in insulin-resistant subjects [6]. In pregnant women fetuin-A levels were shown to increase with gestational age [7]. Furthermore women with gestational diabetes (GDM) display higher levels of fetuin-A compared to normal glucose tolerant counterparts [7]. However, GDM being regarded as pre-type 2 diabetes may comprise a very heterogeneous group of women of different ethnicity and with varying degree of obesity. Therefore, investigating fetuin-A behavior in women with GDM may provide a possibility to further elucidate the role of fetuin-A in early stages of diabetes mellitus. Therefore we aimed to investigate the role of acute glucose ingestion during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on plasma fetuin-A levels in a homogeneous group of European young normal-weight to moderately overweight women with and without GDM during as well as after partum. 2. Methods The study was performed as a case-control study. Women with GDM were recruited consecutively from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Medical University of Vienna. Those who gave
Schistosoma mansoni Infections in the First Three Months of Life of Sympatric Intermediate Hosts from Brazil
Fernandez Monica Ammon
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1997,
Doped two orbital chains with strong Hund's rule couplings - ferromagnetism, spin gap, singlet and triplet pairings
Beat Ammon,Masatoshi Imada
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.70.547
Abstract: Different models for doping of two-orbital chains with mobile $S=1/2$ fermions and strong, ferromagnetic (FM) Hund's rule couplings stabilizing the S=1 spins are investigated by density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods. The competition between antiferromagnetic (AF) and FM order leads to a rich phase diagram with a narrow FM region for weak AF couplings and strongly enhanced triplet pairing correlations. Without a level difference between the orbitals, the spin gap persists upon doping, whereas gapless spin excitations are generated by interactions among itinerant polarons in the presence of a level difference. In the charge sector we find dominant singlet pairing correlations without a level difference, whereas upon the inclusion of a Coulomb repulsion between the orbitals or with a level difference, charge density wave (CDW) correlations decay slowest. The string correlation functions remain finite upon doping for all models.
Spin-1 chain doped with mobile S=1/2 fermions
Beat Ammon,Masatoshi Imada
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.1056
Abstract: We investigate doping of a two-orbital chain with mobile $S=1/2$ fermions as a valid model for $\rm Y_{2-x}Ca_xBaNiO_5$. The S=1 spins are stabilized by strong, ferromagnetic (fm) Hund's rule couplings. We calculate correlation functions and thermodynamic quantities by DMRG methods and find a new hierarchy of energy scales in the spin sector upon doping. Gapless spin-excitations are generated at a lower energy scale by interactions among itinerant polarons created by each hole and coexist with the larger scale of the gapful spin-liquid background of the S=1 chain accompanied by a finite string-order parameter.
Effect of the Orbital Level Difference in Doped Spin-1 Chains
Beat Ammon,Masatoshi Imada
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.69.1946
Abstract: Doping of a two-orbital chain with mobile S=1/2 Fermions and strong Hund's rule couplings stabilizing the S=1 spins strongly depends on the presence of a level difference among these orbitals. By DMRG methods we find a finite spin gap upon doping and dominant pairing correlations without level-difference, whereas the presence of a level difference leads to dominant charge density wave (CDW) correlations with gapless spin-excitations. The string correlation function also shows qualitative differences between the two models.
Monte Carlo Study of the Separation of Energy Scales in Quantum Spin 1/2 Chains with Bond Disorder
Beat Ammon,Manfred Sigrist
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.68.1018
Abstract: One-dimensional Heisenberg spin 1/2 chains with random ferro- and antiferromagnetic bonds are realized in systems such as $Sr_3 CuPt_{1-x} Ir_x O_6$. We have investigated numerically the thermodynamic properties of a generic random bond model and of a realistic model of $Sr_3 CuPt_{1-x} Ir_x O_6$ by the quantum Monte Carlo loop algorithm. For the first time we demonstrate the separation into three different temperature regimes for the original Hamiltonian based on an exact treatment, especially we show that the intermediate temperature regime is well-defined and observable in both the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility. The crossover between the regimes is indicated by peaks in the specific heat. The uniform magnetic susceptibility shows Curie-like behavior in the high-, intermediate- and low-temperature regime, with different values of the Curie constant in each regime. We show that these regimes are overlapping in the realistic model and give numerical data for the analysis of experimental tests.
Journey to the Land of No Return: Alice Notley’s The Descent of Alette and the Sumerian “Descent of Inanna”  [PDF]
Kurt Cline
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/als.2015.33014
Abstract: The shaman’s song is reflected in epical literature in the theme of the Otherworldly Journey. As recorded by ethnologists, the shaman’s song, a record of as well as engagement with such a journey, summons up a bizarre dreamscape populated by fantastic beings, and engages with a specialized poetics employing linguistic paradox, trance-inducing rhythms, and nonsense words—these last considered by shamans to be a “secret language.” Alice Notley’s contemporary descent myth The Descent of Alette has strong ties to the ancient Sumerian Descent of Inanna as well as to the Gnostic myth of Sophia’s descent into matter to affect the redemption of humankind. I show Inanna’s connection to shamanic praxis and Gnostic mythology, and read Alette’s journey as a crisis vision, in order to argue for the existence of a shamanic poetics, a special way of using language as a healing medium and vehicle of myth. Notley’s post-modern epic placed alongside the extremely ancient Inanna myth-cycle reveals the shaman’s perennial theme of the Otherworldly Journey ever reconfigured according to the artist/healer’s relationship to a specific culture, and that culture’s relationship to the shamanic paradigm.
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