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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2385 matches for " Kunita Kenji "
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The effects of neck flexion on cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in related sensory cortices
Fujiwara Katsuo,Kunita Kenji,Kiyota Naoe,Mammadova Aida
Journal of Physiological Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-31
Abstract: Background A flexed neck posture leads to non-specific activation of the brain. Sensory evoked cerebral potentials and focal brain blood flow have been used to evaluate the activation of the sensory cortex. We investigated the effects of a flexed neck posture on the cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in the related sensory cortices. Methods Twelve healthy young adults received right visual hemi-field, binaural auditory and left median nerve stimuli while sitting with the neck in a resting and flexed (20° flexion) position. Sensory evoked potentials were recorded from the right occipital region, Cz in accordance with the international 10–20 system, and 2 cm posterior from C4, during visual, auditory and somatosensory stimulations. The oxidative-hemoglobin concentration was measured in the respective sensory cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Latencies of the late component of all sensory evoked potentials significantly shortened, and the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials increased when the neck was in a flexed position. Oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the left and right visual cortices were higher during visual stimulation in the flexed neck position. The left visual cortex is responsible for receiving the visual information. In addition, oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the bilateral auditory cortex during auditory stimulation, and in the right somatosensory cortex during somatosensory stimulation, were higher in the flexed neck position. Conclusions Visual, auditory and somatosensory pathways were activated by neck flexion. The sensory cortices were selectively activated, reflecting the modalities in sensory projection to the cerebral cortex and inter-hemispheric connections.
Evolution based on genome structure: the “diagonal genome universe”  [PDF]
Kenji Sorimachi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.210137
Abstract: The ratios of amino acid to the total amino acids and those of nucleotides to the total nucleotides in genes or genomes are suitable indexes to compare whole gene or genome characteristics based on the large number of nucleotides rather than their sequences. As these ratios are strictly calculated from nucleotide sequences, the values are independent of experimental errors. In the present mini-review, the following themes are approached according to the ratios of amino acids and nucleotides to their total numbers in the genome: prebiotic evolution, the chronological precedence of protein and codon formations, genome evolution, Chargaff’s second pa- rity rule, and the origins of life. Amino acid formation might have initially occurred during pre- biotic evolution, the “amino acid world”, and amino acid polymerization might chronologically precede codon formation at the end of prebiotic evolution. All nucleotide alterations occurred synchronously over the genome during biolo- gical evolution. After establishing primitive lives, all nucleotide alterations have been governed by linear formulae in nuclear and organelle genomes consisting of the double-stranded DNA. When the four nucleotide contents against each individual nucleotide content in organelles are expressed by four linear regression lines representing the diagonal lines of a 0.5 square – the “Diagonal Genome Universe”, evolution obeys Chargaff’s second parity rule. The fact that linear regression lines intersect at a single point su- ggests that all species originated from a single life source.
Evolution from Primitive Life to Homo sapiens Based on Visible Genome Structures: The Amino Acid World  [PDF]
Kenji Sorimachi
Natural Science (NS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2009.12013
Abstract: It is not too much to say that molecular biology, including genome research, has progressed based on the determination of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. However, these ap-proaches are limited to the analysis of relatively small numbers of the same genes among spe-cies. On the other hand, by graphical presenta-tion of the ratios of the numbers of amino acids present to the total numbers of amino acids presumed from the target gene(s) or genome or those of the numbers of nucleotides present to the total numbers of nucleotides calculated from the target gene(s) or genome, we can readily draw conclusions from extraordinarily huge data sets integrated by human intelli-gence. 1) Assuming polymerization of amino acids or nucleotides in a simulation analysis based on a random choice, proteins were formed by simple amino acid polymerization, while nucleotide polymerization to form nucleic acids encoding specific proteins needed certain specific control. These results proposed that protein formation chronologically preceded codon formation during the establishment of primitive life forms. In the prebiotic phase, amino acid composition was a dominant factor that determined protein characteristics; the “Amino Acid World”. 2) The genome is constructed homogeneou- sly from putative small units displaying similar codon usages and coding for similar amino acid compositions; the unit is a gene assembly en-coding 3,000 - 7,000 amino acid residues and this unit size is independent not only of genome size, but also of species. 3) In codon evolution, all nucleotide alterna-tions are correlated, not only in coding regions, but also in non-coding regions; the correlations can be expressed by linear formulas; y = ax + b, where “y” and “x” represent nucleotide con-tents, and “a” and “b” are constant. 4) The basic pattern of cellular amino acid compositions obtained from whole cell lysates is conserved from bacteria to Homo sapiens, and resembles that calculated from complete genomes. This basic pattern is characterized by a “star-shape” that changes slightly among species, and changes in amino acid composi-tion seem to reflect biological evolution. 5) Organisms can essentially be classified according to two codon patterns. Biological evolution due to nucleotide sub-stitutions can be expressed by simple linear formulas based on mathematical principles, while natural selection must affect species pre- servation after nucleotide alternations. There-fore, although Darwin’s natural selection is not directly involved in nucleotide alternations, it contributes obviously to the
Codon evolution in double-stranded organelle DNA: strong regulation of homonucleotides and their analog alternations  [PDF]
Kenji Sorimachi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.28106
Abstract: In our previous study, complete single DNA strands which were obtained from nuclei, chloroplasts and plant mitochondria obeyed Chargaff’s second parity rule, although those which were obtained from animal mitochondria deviated from the rule. On the other hand, plant mitochondria obeyed another different rule after their classification. Complete single DNA strand sequences obtained from chloroplasts, plant mitochondria, and animal mitochondria, were divided into the coding and non-coding regions. The non-coding region, which was the complementary coding region on the reverse strand, was incorporated as a coding region in the forward strand. When the nucleotide contents of the coding region or non-coding regions were plotted against the composition of the four nucleotides in the complete single DNA strand, it was determined that chloroplast and plant mitochondrial DNA obeyed Chargaff’s second parity rule in both the coding and non-coding regions. However, animal mitochondrial DNA deviated from this rule. In chloroplast and plant mitochondrial DNA, which obey Chargaff’s second parity rule, the lines of regression for G (purine) and C (pyrimidine) intersected with regression lines for A (purine) and T (pyrimidines), respectively, at around 0.250 in all cases. On the other hand, in animal mitochondrial DNA, which deviates from Chargaff’s second parity rule, only regression lines due to the content of homonucleotides or their analogs in the coding or non-coding region against those in the complete single DNA strand intersected at around 0.250 at the horizontal axis. Conversely, the intersection of the two lines of regression (G and A or C and T) against the contents of heteronucleotides or their analogs shifted from 0.25 in both coding and non-coding regions. Nucleotide alternations in chloroplasts and plant mitochondria are strictly regulated, not only by the proportion of homonucleotides and their analogs, but also by the heteronucleotides and their analogs. They are strictly regulated in animal mitochondria only by the content of homonucleotides and their analogs.
Genomic data provides simple evidence for a single origin of life  [PDF]
Kenji Sorimachi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.25065
Abstract: One hundred and fifty years ago, Charles Darwin’s on the Origin of Species explained the evolution of species through evolution by natural selection. To date, there is no simple piece of evidence demonstrating this concept across species. Chargaff’s first parity rule states that comple-mentary base pairs are in equal proportion across DNA strands. Chargaff’s second parity rule, in-consistently followed across species, states that the base pairs are in equal proportion within DNA strands [G ≈ C, T ≈ A and (G + A) ≈ (C + T)]. Using genomic libraries, we analyzed the extent to which DNA samples followed Chargaff’s second parity rule. In organelle DNA, nucleotide rela-tionships were heteroskedastic. After classifying organelles into chloroplasts and mitochondria, and then into plant, vertebrate, and invertebrate I and II mitochondria, nucleotide relationships were expressed by linear regression lines. All regression lines based on nuclear and organelle DNA crossed at the same point. This is a simple demonstration of a common ancestor across species.
A Comment on Reis  [PDF]
Kenji Miyazaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13019
Abstract: This note gives a counterexample on Reis [1]. Using a certain family of utility functions, this note not only gives a sharper representation than that of Reis but also demonstrates that interest rate inelastic money demand does not lead to superneutrality. This implies that superneutrality does not exist when uncerinty is introduced.
Prosody and Quantifier Float in Japanese  [PDF]
Kenji Yokota
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.31011
Abstract: The paper investigates the information structure that licenses the Japanese floating numeral quantifier (FNQ) in terms of prosody and context from the point of view that the pitch reset on the FNQ affects the information structure and plays a crucial role in determining the interpretation of the FNQ. I will show that FNQ sentences are potentially ambiguous between an event-quantifier reading (i.e., a VP-related FNQ reading), and an object-quantifier reading (i.e., an NP-related FNQ reading) where such a reading is possible. The syntactic and semantic difference yields distinct prosodic phrasings (in accordance with information-structure) which contribute to the disambiguation of the two readings (and hence the grammaticality).
On the Distributive and Non-Distributive Interpretation in Japanese  [PDF]
Kenji Yokota
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.44046
Abstract: Through an analysis of two different types of floating numeral quantifier (FNQ) constructions in Japanese, the present paper investigates the distributive and non-distributive interpretation in Japanese. Discussion of the interpretative issues related to ambiguity and intonation has indicated that FNQs are potentially ambiguous, offering both distributive and non-distributive readings.
Towards a Proper Treatment of “NP-Related” Floating Numeral Quantifiers in Japanese  [PDF]
Kenji Yokota
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.54033
Abstract: One of the central questions in linguistics is whether or not the Japanese floating numeral quantifier (FNQ) is always a distributive operator, as Gunji and Hasida (1998), Nakanishi (2004, 2007, 2008), and Kobuchi (2003, 2007) contend. This paper argues against their view and that the interpretive ambiguity is resolved if the semantic ambiguity arises due to the existence of the two different types of FNQs. It is argued that, discourse-semantically, what is crucial to the distinction between the two types of FNQs is whether an FNQ is interpreted via quantificational adverbs or quantificational determiners. This distinction is required when variance in FNQ interpretation is considered. In particular, it is shown that NP-related FNQs have much in common with referential (-like) nouns, functioning as discourse anaphoric items.
RETRACTED: Simple Prediction Formula of Delay Time of Measurement Pressure  [PDF]
Kenji Tadakuma
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2016.63018

Short Retraction Notice

The paper does not meet the standards of \"Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics\". This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.

Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Heuy Dong Kim (EiC, OJFD)

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper which is marked \"RETRACTED\".

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