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Molecular mapping of QTLs for plant type and earliness traits in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.)
Kumawat Giriraj,Raje Ranjeet S,Bhutani Shefali,Pal Jitendra K
BMC Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-13-84
Abstract: Background Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics and sub-tropical regions where it plays a crucial role in the food and nutritional security of the people. The average productivity of pigeonpea has remained very low and stagnant for over five decades due to lack of genomic information and intensive breeding efforts. Previous SSR-based linkage maps of pigeonpea used inter-specific crosses due to low inter-varietal polymorphism. Here our aim was to construct a high density intra-specific linkage map using genic-SNP markers for mapping of major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for key agronomic traits, including plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods, days to flowering and days to maturity in pigeonpea. Results A population of 186 F2:3 lines derived from an intra-specific cross between inbred lines ‘Pusa Dwarf’ and ‘HDM04-1’ was used to construct a dense molecular linkage map of 296 genic SNP and SSR markers covering a total adjusted map length of 1520.22 cM for the 11 chromosomes of the pigeonpea genome. This is the first dense intra-specific linkage map of pigeonpea with the highest genome length coverage. Phenotypic data from the F2:3 families were used to identify thirteen QTLs for the six agronomic traits. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the individual QTLs ranged from 3.18% to 51.4%. Ten of these QTLs were clustered in just two genomic regions, indicating pleiotropic effects or close genetic linkage. In addition to the main effects, significant epistatic interaction effects were detected between the QTLs for number of pods per plant. Conclusions A large amount of information on transcript sequences, SSR markers and draft genome sequence is now available for pigeonpea. However, there is need to develop high density linkage maps and identify genes/QTLs for important agronomic traits for practical breeding applications. This is the first report on identification of QTLs for plant type and maturity traits in pigeonpea. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in the pigeonpea improvement.
Development and Validation of a Rapid Chemometrics Assisted RP-HPLC with PDA Detection Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Pyridoxine HCl and Doxylamine Succinate in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form
P. Giriraj,T. Sivakkumar
Chromatography Research International , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/827895
Abstract: Simple, rapid, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and optimized with the help of chemometric tool for the simultaneous estimation of pyridoxine HCl and doxylamine succinate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Optimization was done by central composite design in response surface methodology. Based on the trial and error, percentage of organic phase (methanol) in mobile phase, flow rate, and molarity of the buffer were selected as factors. Resolution and retention time were used for the estimation of system response during the optimization procedure. The optimized condition was used and the separation was carried out on phenomenex C18 column (150 × 4.6?mm; i.d, 5?μ particle size) using the mobile phase containing 49.37% of methanol and 50.63% of phosphate buffer (45.14?mM) at a flow rate of 1?mL/min. Retention time was found to be 1.884 minutes for pyridoxine HCl and 3.959 minutes for doxylamine succinate. The calibration curves were found to be linear from 10 to 70?μg/mL and 10 to 90?μg/mL for pyridoxine HCl and doxylamine succinate with their correlation coefficient values 0.9995 and 0.9997. LOD and LOQ were found to be 23.5?ng/mL and 71.1?ng/mL for pyridoxine HCl and 99.9?ng/mL and 302.6?ng/mL for doxylamine succinate. 1. Introduction Pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYH) is chemically 3,4-pyridinediacetonitrile, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl, hydrochloride (Figure 1). It is a water-soluble vitamin, involved principally in amino acid, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism [1, 2]. Figure 1: Structure of PYH. Doxylamine succinate (DOX) is chemically N,N-dimethyl-2-[8-methyl-8-(2-pyridyl)?benzyloxy] ethylamine hydrogen succinate (Figure 2). It is an antihistaminic with antimuscarinic and pronounced sedative effect [1–3]. Figure 2: Structure of DOX. Literature survey exposed that there are few UV [1, 2, 4–7] and HPLC [2, 8–19] methods that were reported for these drugs individually and combined with other drugs. There is no article available in the literature regarding chemometrics approach used in the RP-HPLC method development for the simultaneous estimation of PYH and DOX. Developing and optimizing isocratic HPLC techniques [20] could be a sophisticated practice that needs synchronized fortitude of several factors. HPLC methods were optimized by time-consuming trial-and-error approach for the last several years, resulting only in an obvious optimum and information regarding the sensitivity of the factors on analytes separation and interaction between factors is not available. Hence, any one of the chemometric methods which includes the overlapping
Development of genic-SSR markers by deep transcriptome sequencing in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh]
Sutapa Dutta, Giriraj Kumawat, Bikram P Singh, Deepak K Gupta, Sangeeta Singh, Vivek Dogra, Kishor Gaikwad, Tilak R Sharma, Ranjeet S Raje, Tapas K Bandhopadhya, Subhojit Datta, Mahendra N Singh, Fakrudin Bashasab, Pawan Kulwal, KB Wanjari, Rajeev K Varshney, Douglas R Cook, Nagendra K Singh
BMC Plant Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-17
Abstract: In this study, 43,324 transcriptome shotgun assembly unigene contigs were assembled from 1.696 million 454 GS-FLX sequence reads of separate pooled cDNA libraries prepared from leaf, root, stem and immature seed of two pigeonpea varieties, Asha and UPAS 120. A total of 3,771 genic-SSR loci, excluding homopolymeric and compound repeats, were identified; of which 2,877 PCR primer pairs were designed for marker development. Dinucleotide was the most common repeat motif with a frequency of 60.41%, followed by tri- (34.52%), hexa- (2.62%), tetra- (1.67%) and pentanucleotide (0.76%) repeat motifs. Primers were synthesized and tested for 772 of these loci with repeat lengths of ≥18 bp. Of these, 550 markers were validated for consistent amplification in eight diverse pigeonpea varieties; 71 were found to be polymorphic on agarose gel electrophoresis. Genetic diversity analysis was done on 22 pigeonpea varieties and eight wild species using 20 highly polymorphic genic-SSR markers. The number of alleles at these loci ranged from 4-10 and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.46 to 0.72. Neighbor-joining dendrogram showed distinct separation of the different groups of pigeonpea cultivars and wild species. Deep transcriptome sequencing of the two parental lines helped in silico identification of polymorphic genic-SSR loci to facilitate the rapid development of an intra-species reference genetic map, a subset of which was validated for expected allelic segregation in the reference mapping population.We developed 550 validated genic-SSR markers in pigeonpea using deep transcriptome sequencing. From these, 20 highly polymorphic markers were used to evaluate the genetic relationship among species of the genus Cajanus. A comprehensive set of genic-SSR markers was developed as an important genomic resource for diversity analysis and genetic mapping in pigeonpea.Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh] is an important food legume predominantly cultivated in the t
Bianchi type I tilted cosmological model for barotropic perfect fluid distribution with heat conduction in general relativity
Bali, Raj;Kumawat, Pramila;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332010000300001
Abstract: bianchi type i tilted cosmological model for barotropic perfect fluid distribution with heat conduction is investigated.to get the deterministic solution, we have assumed barotropic condition p = γ ∈ ,0 < γ < 1, p being isotropic pressure, ∈ the matter density and a supplementary condition between metric potentials a, b, c as a = (bc)n where n is the constant. to get the model in terms of cosmic time, we have also discussed some special cases. the physical aspects of the model are also discussed.
Preparation and characterisation of tamarind 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (THBA) resin and its use in extraction of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater
AV Singh, IK Kumawat
Water SA , 2012,
Abstract: The adsorption of heavy metal cations, Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Fe(II) from aqueous solution by newly-synthesized tamarind 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (THBA) resin was investigated. The resin was characterised on the basis of FTIR, elemental analysis, ion-exchange capacity and physico-chemical properties. The distribution coefficients (Kd) and percentage adsorption of metal ions on resin were determined by batch methods using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The effect of experimental parameters, such as pH, treatment time, temperature, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and flow rate, on the removal of metal ions was also studied. THBA resin proved to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of different heavy metal ions from aqueous solution; removal efficiency followed the order: Fe(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II). These results suggest that the cation exchange resin THBA holds great potential to remove cationic heavy metal species from industrial wastewater.
*Kumawat MK,Jha AK
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics , 2011,
Abstract: The immune system protects our body against pathogens and other foreign substances by producing a kind of glycoprotein known as immunoglobulin or antibodies from plasma cells or B-cells. Surveys show that about one-third of all adults believe they have food allergies. About 4-8% percent of young children are diagnosed with food allergies, most of which are evident in the first years of life and are often outgrown. A food allergy is any adverse reaction to an otherwise harmless food or food component that involves the body’s immune system. In others a word, a food allergy is an immune system response to a food that the body mistakenly believes is harmful. Components of a food that trigger the immune system are called food allergens. Cows’ milk allergy appears to be among the more prevalent food allergies in infants. Eggs and peanuts are also common allergenic foods for infants, along with soybeans, tree nuts, fish, and wheat. Seafood allergies, especially to crustaceans (shrimp, crab, lobster) are also rather common among adults. The present review provides brief information about food allergy and allergic reactions, their types, symptoms and approaches for reduction.
Santosh Kumawat,,Ajay Khunteta
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Real-time cooperative editing systems allow multiple users to view and edit the same text/ graphic/ image/ multimedia document at the same time from multiple sites connected by communication networks.Operational transformation (OT) is an established optimistic consistency control method in collaborative applications This approach requires correct transformation functions. In general all OT algorithms only consider two character-based primitive operations and hardly two or three of them support string based two primitiveoperations, insert and delete. In this paper we proposed new algorithms that consider first time in history two more new string operations that are update and substring in addition to primitive operations like insert and delete. It also handles overlapping and splitting of operations when concurrent operations are transformed. These algorithms can be applied in a wide range of practical collaborative applications.
Sequence Related IT Functions for String Based Update Operations by New Operational Transformation Algorithms for Wide-Area Collaborative Applications
Santosh kumawat,Ajay Khunteta
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Operational transformation (OT) is an established optimistic consistency control method in collaborative applications. This approach requires correct transformation functions. In general all OT algorithms only consider two character-based primitive operations and hardly two or three of them support string based two primitive operations, insert and delete. In our earlier paper [1] we have proposed new algorithms that consider first time in history new stringoperations that are update for atomic string operations in addition to primitive operations like insert and delete. In this paper we have proposed new algorithms LocalU and RemoteU for handling local and remote update operations of strings for both atomic and sequential operations. These algorithms first time in history are handling sequential update string operations. These algorithms satisfy correctness criteria like causality preservation and admissibility preservation. These algorithms are for sequential update operations but have synchronization with existing primitive operations like insert and delete also. It also handles overlapping and splitting of operations when concurrent operations are transformed. These algorithms can be applied in a wide range of practical collaborativeapplications.
Acute graft versus host disease
Kumawat Mahesh,Khandpur Sujay
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2011,
Lalit Kumawat,Arpit Jain
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Drug delivery technologies are patent protected formulation technologies that modify drug release profile, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance .Delivery devices already exist that can release two drugs, but the timing of the release must be built into the device and it cannot be controlled from outside the body. But the new system gold nanoparticles are controlled externally and theoretically could deliver up to three or four drugs. When a drug is administered, the dosage must be carefully calculated so that the body can use the drug, which requires a drug delivery system which allows for precise dosing. Drug delivery systems also need to consider the way in which a drug is metabolized by the body. For example, some drugs are destroyed in the intestinal tract, which means that they cannot be introduced to the body in this way. Others may be dangerous in large amounts, which mean that a time release method should be used to deliver the drug for patient safety.
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