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Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum from butanol fermentation using glucose and xylose
Kumaran Sivagnanam, Vijaya GS Raghavan, Manesh Shah, Robert L Hettich, Nathan C Verberkmoes, Mark G Lefsrud
Proteome Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-9-66
Abstract: We identified 894 different proteins in C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation process by two dimensional - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) method. This includes 717 proteins from glucose and 826 proteins from the xylose substrate. A total of 649 proteins were found to be common and 22 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified between glucose and xylose substrates.Our results demonstrate that flagellar proteins are highly up-regulated with glucose compared to xylose substrate during ABE fermentation. Chemotactic activity was also found to be lost with the xylose substrate due to the absence of CheW and CheV proteins. This is the first report on the shotgun proteomic analysis of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in ABE fermentation between glucose and xylose substrate from a single time data point and the number of proteins identified here is more than any other study performed on this organism up to this report.Clostridium acetobutylicum is a gram positive, spore forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria and is one of the few microorganisms capable of converting a wide variety of sugars into three main products acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) [1]. ABE fermentation process was the primary source of butanol for over 40 years until the mid-1950s and is one of the oldest large-scale industrial fermentations [2]. ABE fermentation could not compete with the chemical synthesis of ABE solvents from petroleum since the mid-1950s [3]. However, increased concern over depletion of fossil fuels has led to renewed research interest in producing solvents via microbial fermentation processes.Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource that can be used for the production of alternative fuels [4]. It is advantageous to use lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover and agricultural residues for biofuel production as they have limited impact on food supplies [5]. Glucose is the most abundant sugar fou
Potential therapeutic agents in the management of organophosphorus poisoning
Soupramanien Sivagnanam
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1500
Abstract: Insect damage costs the world loses approximately 6 billion pounds sterling every year. Use of pesticides has increased food production in parallel with population growth in many parts of the world. Many insect-borne diseases have been eliminated or controlled by the use of insecticides. Organophosphorus compounds are widely used as insecticides and as agents of chemical warfare. According to the World Health Organization [2], 1 million serious accidental and 2 million suicidal poisonings with insecticides occur worldwide every year, and of these approximately 200,000 die, mostly in developing countries.Atropine and oximes are traditionally used in the management of such poisonings but they have failed to reduce the attendant mortality and morbidity. Some agents have been found to reduce the toxicity of organophosphorus compounds in animal experiments, and they have potential as therapeutic agents in the management of organophosphorus poisoning. These agents are magnesium, clonidine and fluoride.Kiss and Fazekas [3] reported control of premature ventricular contractions with intravenous magnesium. Magnesium was considered to counteract the direct toxic inhibitory action of organophosphorus compounds on sodium—potassium ATPase. It also inhibits acetylcholine release [4]. Singh and coworkers [5] found that intravenous magnesium reversed the neuro-electrophysiological effect of organophosphorus poisoning.Pretreatment of mice with clonidine (0.1—1 mg/kg) resulted in protection against toxic manifestations of soman — an organophosphorus compound [6]. Increased survival rates, reduction in centrally mediated symptoms such as tremor and straub tail, and reduction in excessive salivation were noted. The protective effects of clonidine are probably due to blockade of acetylcholine release and postmuscarinic receptors, together with transient inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Thus, clonidine may prove useful in the management of organophosphorus poisoning.Pretreatment of mi
C. Sivagnanam
International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications , 2012,
Abstract: In a graph G, a vertex dominates itself and its neighbours. A subset S of V is called a dominating set in G if every vertex in V is dominated by at least one vertex in S. The domination number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set. A set is called a double dominating set of a graph G if every vertex in V is dominated by at least two vertices in S. The minimum cardinality of a double dominating set is called double domination number of G and is denoted by dd(G). The connectivity of a connected graph G is the minimum number of vertices whose removal results in a disconnected or trivial graph. In this paper we find an upper bound for the sum of the double domination number and connectivity of a graph and characterize the corresponding extremal graphs.
Red man syndrome
Soupramanien Sivagnanam, Dirk Deleu
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1871
Abstract: The incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients varies between 5 and 15% [1]. Nosocomial infection can lead to complications in 25–33% of those patients admitted to intensive care units. Vancomycin is often used in intensive care units. It is the drug of choice for the treatment of infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vancomycin is an alternative drug for serious staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including endocarditis, when allergy precludes the use of penicillins and cephalosporins.Vancomycin can cause two types of hypersensitivity reactions, the red man syndrome and anaphylaxis [2]. Red man syndrome is an infusion-related reaction peculiar to vancomycin [3]. It typically consists of pruritus, an erythematous rash that involves the face, neck, and upper torso. Less frequently, hypotension and angioedema can occur. Patients commonly complain of diffuse burning and itching and of generalized discomfort. They can rapidly become dizzy and agitated, and can develop headache, chills, fever, and paresthesia around the mouth. In severe cases, patients complain of chest pain and dyspnea. In many patients, the syndrome is a mild, evanescent pruritus at the end of the infusion that goes unreported.Signs of red man syndrome would appear about 4–10 min after an infusion started or may begin soon after its completion. It is often associated with rapid (<1 hour) infusion of the first dose of vancomycin. The reaction may not be of the same severity with successive exposures, but it can occur for the first time after several doses or with a slow infusion [4]. Delayed reactions at or near the end of a 90 or 120 min infusion have been seen in patients who had been on vancomycin therapy for longer than 7 days without prior incident [5]. Most of the hospital protocols require vancomycin to be infused over 60 min, as a minimum [5,6]. Sporadic reports of red man synd
Neighbourhood total domination in graphs
S. Arumugam,C. Sivagnanam
Opuscula Mathematica , 2011,
Abstract: Let G = (V;E) be a graph without isolated vertices. A dominating set S of G is called a neighbourhood total dominating set (ntd-set) if the induced subgraph has no isolated vertices. The minimum cardinality of a ntd-set of G is called the neighbourhood total domination number of G and is denoted by $gamma _{nt}(G)$. The maximum order of a partition of V into ntd-sets is called the neighbourhood total domatic number of G and is denoted by $d_{nt}(G)$. In this paper we initiate a study of these parameters.
Mycoremediation of Endosulfan and Its Metabolites in Aqueous Medium and Soil by Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9
Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077170
Abstract: Microbial degradation offers an efficient and ecofriendly approach to remove toxicants from the contaminated environments. Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 were capable of degrading endosulfan and their metabolites which were isolated through enrichment technique. Both the strains were able to withstand an exposure of 1300 mg/L and showed luxuriant growth at 1000 mg/L of endosulfan. The change in pH in the culture broth was from 6.8 to 3.4 and 3.8 during growth kinetic studies of JAS6 and JAS9 strains, respectively upon biological degradation of endosulfan. The degradation of endosulfan by JAS6 and JAS9 strains were examined by HPLC. The biodegradation rate constant (k) and the initial concentration were reduced by 50% (DT50) which was determined by first and pseudo first order kinetic models. In the present investigation it has been revealed that Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 possessing endosulfan degrading capability are being reported for the first time. These findings confirm the degradation of endosulfan by JAS6 and JAS9 strains which were accompanied by significant reduction in the toxicity and could be used as remedial measure in contaminated environments.
Visible Minority Librarians of Canada Network
Maha Kumaran
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2011,
Abstract: This is a network that has just been approved by the Canadian Library Association.
Raghu Kumaran
Otolaryngology Online Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Hemangioma do not develop as commonly in sinonasal cavity,compared with other head and neck sites.the most commonly presenting symptom is epistaxis.hemangioma involving multiple sinuses with a atypial clinical presentation is extremely rare.wepresent a representative case of sphenoethmoidal hemangioma with atypical clinical presentation and treated by endoscopic excision yeilding excellent outcome in terms of tumor control and safety
Then and Now: English in Sri Lanka’s Public Sector
Kumaran Rajandran
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: English was the official language of Sri Lanka during British colonization but it was replaced by Sinhala and Tamil as independence neared. The public sector was directly affected by this change although English held sway here for some years. Yet, English was made the link language for the Sinhalese and Tamils in 1987 and the state has since taken many steps to promote and improve its use in the public sector. Such change in language policy did not happen in void. It resulted from different perceptions nationalism and nationism had about English. This paper tries to understand the changing fate of English in Sri Lanka’s public sector by placing it in the context of nationalism and nationism. It aims to do two things, namely to explain nationalism and nationism in relation to Sri Lanka and to explore the presence of English in the public sector from independence until today, affected by nationalism and nationism. This investigative approach shows the influence of local ideology on language policy. It is ultimately seen that language policy concerning English in the public sector is responsive to the volatile political and social contexts of Sri Lanka.
Interesting and unusual cases of chronic abdominal pain-intermittent gastric volvulus  [PDF]
Sivasankaran Vadivel Kumaran, Thangavelu Pugazhendhi, Mohammed Ali
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2012.24040
Abstract: Objective: Intermittent gastric volvulus is a rare disease that requires high index of suspicion for diagnosis and treatment. The incidence and prevalence is unknown, may be due to under reporting or under diagnosis. Gastric volvulus may be transient producing few symptoms. The Borchardt’s Triad may be present only during an acute presentation. Common symptoms may mislead to diagnose a nonsurgical disease if an evaluation is not done, keeping in mind a possibility of gastric volvulus, even if a UGI scopy is normal. Cases may be submerged in the community being undiagnosed. Case Series: CASE 1: 21 yrs old male with intermittent abdominal pain for 1(1/2) yrs with marfanoid habitus, MVP and a normal UGI scopy. BMS revealed an Organo-Axial Volvulus and ligament laxity per-operatively. CASE 2: 65 yrs old diabetic female with vomiting and abdominal pain for 3 months and left sided pneumonitis. UGI scopy showed twisted gastric folds immediately below OGJ and inability to visualise antrum. BMS revealed mixed volvulus with paraesophageal herniation of distal stomach. Per-operatively there was laxity of ligaments with omental content alone within the diaphragmatic rent. Posterior retrocolic sub-mucosal gastrojejunostomy(pexy) was done for all cases. Conclusion: Gastric volvulus should be thought of in a case of chronic intermittent abdominal pain with normal baseline evaluation. A Chest X-ray and BMS should be done, at the time of symptoms.
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