The aim of the study was to investigate distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum (var. Pusa Early Bunching) after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used for fertigation of T. foenum-graecum along with bore well water (control). The results revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (P < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO3-4, SO2-4, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (P > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of T. foenum-graecum was increased from 5% to 25% concentration and decreased from 50% to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in T. foenum-graecum from 5% to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The enrichment factor (Ef) of various heavy metals was in order of Cd > Mn > Cr > Cu > Zn > Fe for soil and Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd > Zn > Fe for T. foenum-graecum plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of T. foenum-graecum.
Laser Raman spectroscopic studies were carried out on hemoproteins with special reference to epilepsy and compared the data with those of controls. Some of the bands were found approximately at 368.45 cm-1, 424.90 cm-1, 625.27 cm-1 and 807.38 cm-1 in case of normal children and at 1749.00 cm-1, 1795 cm-1 and 2000 cm-1 in epileptic children cases. A clear cut picture of the hemoproteins has already given in the literature and very interesting bands were found in the range from 300 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1. Our Raman lines are very effective and peculiar. We did not say anything about the detailing of these bands at this juncture.
This paper presents
the operation of a Multi-agent system (MAS) for the control of a smart grid.
The proposed Multi-agent system consists of seven types of agents: Single Smart
Grid Controller (SGC), Load Agents (LAGs), a Wind Turbine Agent (WTAG),
Photo-Voltaic Agents (PVAGs), a Micro-Hydro Turbine Agent (MHTAG), Diesel
Agents (DGAGs) and a Battery Agent (BAG). In a smart grid LAGs act as consumers
or buyers, WTAG, PVAGs, MHTAG & DGAGs acts as producers or sellers and BAG
act as producer/consumer or seller/buyer. The paper demonstrates the use of a
Multi-agent system to control the smart grid in a simulated environment. In
order to validate the performance of the proposed system, it has been applied
to a simple model system with different time zone i.e. day time and night time
and when power is available from the grid and when there is power shedding.
Simulation results show that the proposed Multi-agent system can perform the
operation of the smart grid efficiently.