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Distribution, Enrichment and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) after Fertigation with Paper Mill Effluent  [PDF]
Vinod Kumar,Ashok Kumar Chopra
Open Journal of Metal (OJMetal) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmetal.2013.32a1002
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum (var. Pusa Early Bunching) after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used for fertigation of T. foenum-graecum along with bore well water (control). The results revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (P < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO3-4, SO2-4, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (P > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of T. foenum-graecum was increased from 5% to 25% concentration and decreased from 50% to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in T. foenum-graecum from 5% to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The enrichment factor (Ef) of various heavy metals was in order of Cd > Mn > Cr > Cu > Zn > Fe for soil and Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd > Zn > Fe for T. foenum-graecum plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of T. foenum-graecum.
Distribution, Enrichment and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) after Fertigation with Paper Mill Effluent  [PDF]
Vinod Kumar, Ashok Kumar Chopra
Open Journal of Metal (OJMetal) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmetal.2013.32A1002
Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum (var. Pusa Early Bunching) after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used for fertigation of T. foenum-graecum along with bore well water (control). The results revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (P < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO3-4, SO2-4, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (P > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of T. foenum-graecum was increased from 5% to 25% concentration and decreased from 50% to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in T. foenum-graecum from 5% to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The enrichment factor (Ef) of various heavy metals was in order of Cd > Mn > Cr > Cu > Zn > Fe for soil and Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd > Zn > Fe for T. foenum-graecum plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of T. foenum-graecum.

Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of Red Blood Cell Membrane with Malaria Infection  [PDF]
Vinod Kumar Katiyar, Demeke Fisseha
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2011.13014
Abstract: Human red blood cells (RBCs) are responsible to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide for human bodies. The physiological functions of RBCs are greatly influenced by their mechanical properties. When RBC is infected by Malaria parasite called Plasmodium falciparum, it shows progressive changes in mechanical properties and loses its deformability. The infected red blood cells (IRBCs) develop properties of cytoadherence (stickiness) and rosetting (the binding of non-infected RBCs to parasitized RBCs). In this paper to analyze the mechanical properties and deformability of the IRBC, we applied stress-stretch ratio relation of its biomembrane .To express this constitutive relation, we proposed a mathematical model (Neo-Hookean model) based on membrane theory. On this model, we present continuous stress-stretch ratio curves for the relation derived from the model for different intracellular developmental stages of the parasite, to determine the mechanical properties of IRBC. The analytical results obtained from the mathematical model are more closed with the experimental data [1] which demonstrates the validity of the model. By restricting our attention to spherically symmetric deformation in the final schizont stage of parasite development, the pressure-extension ratio relation curve also adapted from the proposed strain energy function. The change in osmotic pressure versus volumetric ratio has been also considered for IRBC before hemolysis.
Design and Simulation of Intelligent Optical WDM Switching Node Based on Erlang Traffic Model  [PDF]
Manoj Kumar Dutta, Vinod Kumar Chaubey
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.36075
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new architectural switching nodes consisting of two processing nodes that follow Erlang B and Erlang C traffic respectively. The developed model is used to best utilize the given number of output channels to achieve the least blocking probability. An appropriate mathematical model has been further devised and its call blocking probability has been enunciated. Performance of the model has been evaluated for different values of blocking probabilities. It has been observed that the performance of the network is well satisfactory for different design parameters.
Laser Raman Spectroscopic Studies on Hemeproteins in Epileptic Children  [PDF]
Sanjeev Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Deep Chand Jain
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.31018
Abstract:

Laser Raman spectroscopic studies were carried out on hemoproteins with special reference to epilepsy and compared the data with those of controls. Some of the bands were found approximately at 368.45 cm-1, 424.90 cm-1, 625.27 cm-1 and 807.38 cm-1 in case of normal children and at 1749.00 cm-1, 1795 cm-1 and 2000 cm-1 in epileptic children cases. A clear cut picture of the hemoproteins has already given in the literature and very interesting bands were found in the range from 300 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1. Our Raman lines are very effective and peculiar. We did not say anything about the detailing of these bands at this juncture.

Use of Response Surface Modeling in Prediction and Control of Flux Consumption in Submerged Arc Weld Deposits
Vinod Kumar
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract:
A MANUSCRIPT OF FLOODING ALGORITHM IN VANET: A REVIEW
Vinod Kumar
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: A mobile unit in such a network connects to the nearest AP which is within its communication range in a single-hop communication technique. The self-configuration ability of MANETs makes them suitable for a wide variety of applications.In this Paper we study about the VANET . VANET helps in defining safety measures in vehicles, streaming, ,communication between vehicles, infotainment and telematics. In this Ppaer we proposed a algorithm has the concept of TTL through which it decreases the overhead and collision problem. The flooding algorithm can also be further optimized by applying other techniques such as probability based methods. Keywords—MANET,VANET,IEEE802.11,ITS.
Sugar Mill Effluent Utilization in the Cultivation of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Two Seasons
Vinod Kumar
Journal of Waste Management , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/408509
Abstract: The aim of present investigation is to study the effects of sugar mill effluent fertigation on soil properties and agronomical characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L. cv. NMH 589) in two seasons. Six treatments of sugar mill effluent, namely, 0% (control), 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, were used for the cultivation of Z. mays. Fertigation with different concentrations of sugar mill effluent resulted in significant () changes in EC, pH, OC, , , , , TKN, , , , , , , , and of the soil in both seasons. The maximum agronomic performance of Z. mays was noted with 40% concentration of sugar mill effluent. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were recorded highest with 40% concentration of sugar mill effluent in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was observed in order of for soil and for Z. mays in both seasons after fertigation with sugar mill effluent. It appears that sugar mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve the yield. 1. Introduction In many agroindustrial processes, some by-products may be utilized as useful products [1, 2]. In India, the sugar industry is one of the greatest industries, based on sugar cane. Presently India has nearly 650 sugar mills that produce about 15 million tons of sugar and 13 million tons of molasses annually [3, 4]. The high production of sugar generates high quantities of the sugar industry wastes such as effluent, filter mud cake, vinasse, molasses, bagasse, and bagasse ash [5]. A few years ago, these by-products were considered as a waste and were often disposed of causing environmental problems such as aquatic and terrestrial pollution [6]. Recently, it has been recognized that such by-products should be considered as useful materials [7]. These by-products are of great agricultural interest because of their high organic matter, N and K contents, and probably other elements [3, 8, 9]. Therefore, some of these sugar industry by-products may represent an important source of nutrients and thereby could be used as a substitute for chemical and organic fertilizers [2, 8, 10, 11]. Use of wastewater in agricultural fields may be a viable method of disposal and would sustain agriculture in nonirrigated areas where the availability of fresh water is scarce [12, 13]. It reduces fertilizer and irrigation water cost as it is available without paying any cost and rich in various plant nutrients [12]. Although, metals like Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn and other trace elements are important for proper functioning of biological
A Multi-Agent Framework for Operation of a Smart Grid  [PDF]
Ruchi Gupta, Deependra Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B252
Abstract:

This paper presents the operation of a Multi-agent system (MAS) for the control of a smart grid. The proposed Multi-agent system consists of seven types of agents: Single Smart Grid Controller (SGC), Load Agents (LAGs), a Wind Turbine Agent (WTAG), Photo-Voltaic Agents (PVAGs), a Micro-Hydro Turbine Agent (MHTAG), Diesel Agents (DGAGs) and a Battery Agent (BAG). In a smart grid LAGs act as consumers or buyers, WTAG, PVAGs, MHTAG & DGAGs acts as producers or sellers and BAG act as producer/consumer or seller/buyer. The paper demonstrates the use of a Multi-agent system to control the smart grid in a simulated environment. In order to validate the performance of the proposed system, it has been applied to a simple model system with different time zone i.e. day time and night time and when power is available from the grid and when there is power shedding. Simulation results show that the proposed Multi-agent system can perform the operation of the smart grid efficiently.

Comparative evaluation of maize inbred lines (zea mays l.) according to dus testing using morphological, physiological and molecular markers  [PDF]
Vinod Kumar Yadav, Indra Sen Singh
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/as.2010.13016
Abstract: A major challenge facing those involved in the testing of new plant varieties for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) is the need to compare them against all those of 'common knowledge'. A set of maize inbred lines was used to compare how morphological, physiological characterization and RAPD molecular marker described variety relationships. All the inbred lines were confirmed as morphologically and physiologically distinct. At morphological level the maximum genetic distance (10.8) and least genetic distance (1.6) were found. For physiological characters distance varied from 0.35 to 1.92 and results from dendrogram, which was made on the basis of dissimilarity matrix, were grouped into five major clusters. From RAPD, random primers provide polymorphic amplification products; the distance varying 0.42 to 0.65 and dendrogram showed that these lines formed close clusters due to the less variation in these lines at molecular level. In the present study, the molecular markers also exposed useful genetic diversity and the visual displays appeared to disperse the lines somewhat more evenly over the plot than the morphological and physiological methods.
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