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New approaches to pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis
?kesson,Kristina;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000900008
Abstract: osteoporosis has been recognized as a major public health problem for less than two decades. the increasing incidence of fragility fractures, such as vertebral, hip, and wrist fractures, first became apparent from epidemiological studies in the early and mid-1980s, when effective treatment was virtually unavailable. pharmacological therapies that effectively reduce the number of fractures by improving bone mass are now available widely in countries around the world. most current agents inhibit bone loss by reducing bone resorption, but emerging therapies may increase bone mass by directly promoting bone formation - as is the case with parathyroid hormone. current treatment alternatives include bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, but sufficient calcium and vitamin d are a prerequisite. the availability of evidence-based data that show reductions in the incidence of fractures of 30-50% during treatment has been a major step forward in the pharmacological prevention of fractures. with all agents, fracture reduction is most pronounced for vertebral fracture in high-risk individuals; alendronate and risedronate also may protect against hip fracture in the elderly. new approaches to pharmacological treatment will include further development of existing drugs, especially with regard to tolerance and frequency of dosing. new avenues for targeting the condition will emerge as our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of bone remodelling increases, although issues of tissue specificity may be difficult to solve. in the long term, information gained through knowledge of bone genetics may be used to adapt pharmacological treatments more precisely to each individual.
Predgovor
Kristina Urbanc
Ljetopis Studijskog Centra Socijalnog Rada , 2009,
Abstract:
ZNA AJ TERENSKE NASTAVE ZA RAZVOJ PROFESIONALNOG IDENTITETA SOCIJALNIH RADNIKA
Kristina Urbanc
Ljetopis Studijskog Centra Socijalnog Rada , 2003,
Abstract: U radu su iznesene neke osnovne promjene paradigmi u socijalnom radu, te u inci tih promjena na praksu socijalnog rada. Osnovni pojmovi koje autor u tom kontekstu definira su refleksivna praksa, uloga posrednika koju socijalni radnik ima u odnosu s korisnikom i ideja osna ivanja. S tim u vezi autor isti e va nost uskla ivanja obrazovanja budu ih stru njaka s potrebama prakse. Pritom terenska nastava postaje sve zahtjevnija, a uloga terenskog nastavnika sve slo enija. Takve promjene zahtijevaju od profesionalne zajednice da prepozna va nost terenske nastave, uspostavi sustav specijaliziranja prakti ara za obavljanje ove uloge, te uvede odre ene oblike podr ke i stimulacije za terenske nastavnike.
Mellan skr och profession. Om de svenska arkitekt- och ingenj rsutbildningarnas framv xt och hur ett dominerande kunskapsideal har tagit form Mellan skr och profession. Om de svenska arkitekt- och ingenj rsutbildningarnas framv xt och hur ett dominerande kunskapsideal har tagit form
Kristina Grange
FORMakademisk , 2010,
Abstract: I denna artikel kommer utvecklingen fr n skr v sendets uppl sning till de moderna arkitekt- och ingenj rsprofessionernas framv xt i slutet av 1800-talet att tecknas. I fokus f r den i huvudsak empiriska framst llningen st r utvecklingen av det utbildningssystem som n i dag i h g grad bildar utg ngspunkt f r arkitekters och ingenj rers professionella identiteter. En teoretisk utg ngspunkt h mtas fr n Foucault och f rest llningen att makt och vetande f ruts tter varandra. Med ett brett angreppss tt identifieras sedan ett antal yttre h ndelser som har bidragit till att producera ett tekniskt-vetenskapligt kunskapsideal. Detta kunskaps-ideal finns institutionaliserat i dagens utbildningssystem och forts tter d rigenom att produ-cera f ltet av m jliga handlingar f r arkitekter i dag. I denna artikel kommer utvecklingen fr n skr v sendets uppl sning till de moderna arkitekt- och ingenj rsprofessionernas framv xt i slutet av 1800-talet att tecknas. I fokus f r den i huvudsak empiriska framst llningen st r utvecklingen av det utbildningssystem som n i dag i h g grad bildar utg ngspunkt f r arkitekters och ingenj rers professionella identiteter. En teoretisk utg ngspunkt h mtas fr n Foucault och f rest llningen att makt och vetande f ruts tter varandra. Med ett brett angreppss tt identifieras sedan ett antal yttre h ndelser som har bidragit till att producera ett tekniskt-vetenskapligt kunskapsideal. Detta kunskaps-ideal finns institutionaliserat i dagens utbildningssystem och forts tter d rigenom att produ-cera f ltet av m jliga handlingar f r arkitekter i dag.
LEGAL ISSUES AND REGULATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN LITHUANIA DURING THE INTER-WAR YEARS
Kristina Ivanauskait?
Social Transformations in Contemporary Society , 2013,
Abstract:
Review: Arnd Schneider & Christopher Wright (Hrsg.) (2010). Between Art and Anthropology: Contemporary Ethnographic Practice Review: Arnd Schneider & Christopher Wright (Eds.) (2010). Between Art and Anthropology: Contemporary Ethnographic Practice Rese a: Arnd Schneider & Christopher Wright (Eds.) (2010). Between Art and Anthropology: Contemporary Ethnographic Practice
Kristina Hinrichsen
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2012,
Abstract: Die klassische visuelle Anthropologie hat in den letzten Jahren einen zunehmenden Paradigmenwechsel erfahren. Mehr und mehr bemühen sich KünstlerInnen und EthnologInnen um Zusammenarbeit und um das Aufbrechen der starren Grenzen zwischen den Disziplinen. Der hier besprochene Band widmet sich in dreizehn Beitr gen von KünstlerInnen, EthnologInnen und KunstwissenschaftlerInnen den Herausforderungen von Kollaboration und Austausch. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203254 Classic Visual Anthropology has most recently undergone a shift in paradigm. The discipline is now increasingly focused on the collaboration between artists, anthropologists and ethnographers to surmount the rigid borders separating the fields of science and art. The volume reviewed here dedicates its 13 contributions by artists, ethnologists, art historians and art critics to the challenge of mutual collaboration and dialogue. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203254 La antropología visual clásica ha experimentado recientemente un cambio de paradigma. La disciplina ahora está cada vez más enfocada en la colaboración entre artistas, antropólogos y etnógrafos para superar las rígidas fronteras que separan los campos de la ciencia y el arte. El volumen aquí revisado dedica sus 13 contribuciones por artistas, etnólogos, historiadores del arte y críticos de arte al desafío de la colaboración mutua y el diálogo. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203254
DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR DIFFERENT IDENTITIES OF PROFESSIONAL ROLES: A SURVEY OF LITHUANIAN DOCTORAL CANDIDATES
Kristina Kovalcikiene
Social Transformations in Contemporary Society , 2013,
Abstract:
Enforcing Tax Compliance: To Punish or Persuade?
Murphy, Kristina
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2008,
Abstract: A long standing debate has existed between those who believe deterrence-based enforcement strategies work for gaining compliance from offenders and those who believe gentle persuasion and cooperation is more effective. This article is concerned with the issue of how to best deal with offenders so as to increase support for the law and lower the rate of subsequent re-offending. Using survey data from 652 taxpayers who have been through an enforcement experience with the Australian Taxation Office, the present study will show that depending on how an enforcement experience is perceived by offenders (as either stigmatic or reintegrative in nature) can influence the feelings of resentment they experience, but more importantly these feelings of resentment mediate the effect of punishment on subsequent compliance behaviour. In other words, it is these feelings of resentment in response to disapproval that go on to predict who will and will not comply with their subsequent obligations under the law.
Finding and Filling the "Cracks" In Resistance Surfaces for Least-cost Modeling
Kristina Rothley
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: Least-cost modeling is an increasingly popular method used to measure the effective distance between habitat patches and to assess the connectivity of existing landscapes or potential reserves. For least-cost models to be reliable and credible, however, the validity of input data must be demonstrated. Least-cost modelers must also exercise extreme caution when using any GIS-based analysis of this kind. Technical issues associated with the raster-based representation of spatial data may introduce errors in otherwise correct data that nullify results. In this paper, I address the potential presence of "cracks" in the resistance input layer of least-cost modeling exercises. Cracks result when narrow, costly features, such as roads or train tracks, are represented in raster form. These cracks lead to the erroneous identification of nonexistent "shortcuts" across truly expensive barriers. In this paper, I use a hypothetical example to explain resistance-layer cracks, how they occur, and the errors they generate with respect to least-cost modeling. I then present a simple algorithm to reveal the location of cracks and one approach to filling the cracks. Finally, these methods are demonstrated on a real data set in which more than 1% of the raster cells are shown to be cracks. The negative repercussions of faulty resistance layers when conducting least-cost modeling can not be overstated. On the one hand, unimportant or nonexistent least-cost paths on a landscape may be mislabeled as important. As a result, conservation resources committed to protecting these paths will be wasted. Conversely, truly critical corridors may be overlooked, jeopardizing the organisms that rely on them.
Workplace development and learning in elder care – the importance of a fertile soil and the trouble of project implementation
Kristina Westerberg
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2004,
Abstract: Workplace learning and competence development in work are frequently used concepts. A wide spread notion is that societal, institutional, and organizational changes require the development of knowledge, methods and strategies for learning at workplaces, in both public and private enterprises. In research on learning and competence development at work, the organizational learning and development as well as individual accomplishments are investigated from various perspectives and in different contexts. The theoretical base for research projects can, accordingly, be focused at a number of organizational and system levels. This paper describes a research project called "Workplace development and learning in elder care" in which learning and knowledge were key issues and where Activity Theory was used as the theoretical base. The project was joint project between two research and development field units. These were UFFE, a municipal social services’ field research unit, and ldrecentrum V sterbotten, a county council field research unit which aims to serve the interests of the elderly. The project was launched in the fall of 2000 and ended in the summer of 2003. I was employed part-time as a research leader at the municipal research unit and became the research leader for this particular project. A number of students, as well as employees from the county council geriatric care services and the municipal elder care participated in the project. The general aims of the project were to: a) investigate the prerequisites for development and learning; b) test and evaluate interventions at a workgroup level; and c) identify the need for new knowledge. The results were expected to be useful for the field research units as well as for the municipal and county eldercare services in their research and development work. I start with a presentation of the theoretical concepts and apply them in order to form a tentative hypothesis on the status of learning and knowledge in elder care. The next section contains a short description of the different parts of the project and the main results are presented. Finally, the results are discussed and related to the conditions and impact of workplace interventions.
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