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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325749 matches for " Kristen S. Cadenhead "
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Not All Distraction Is Bad: Working Memory Vulnerability to Implicit Socioemotional Distraction Correlates with Negative Symptoms and Functional Impairment in Psychosis
Quintino R. Mano,Gregory G. Brown,Heline Mirzakhanian,Khalima Bolden,Kristen S. Cadenhead,Gregory A. Light
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/320948
Abstract: This study investigated implicit socioemotional modulation of working memory (WM) in the context of symptom severity and functional status in individuals with psychosis ( ). A delayed match-to-sample task was modified wherein task-irrelevant facial distracters were presented early and briefly during the rehearsal of pseudoword memoranda that varied incrementally in load size (1, 2, or 3 syllables). Facial distracters displayed happy, sad, or emotionally neutral expressions. Implicit socioemotional modulation of WM was indexed by subtracting task accuracy on nonfacial geometrical distraction trials from facial distraction trials. Results indicated that the amount of implicit socioemotional modulation of high WM load accuracy was significantly associated with negative symptoms ( , ), role functioning ( , ), social functioning ( , ), and global assessment of functioning ( , ). Specifically, greater attentional distraction of high WM load was associated with less severe symptoms and functional impairment. This study demonstrates the importance of the WM-socioemotional interface in influencing clinical and psychosocial functional status in psychosis. 1. Introduction Attentional impairments are commonly observed in psychosis [1]. A classic view of attentional distraction is that it reflects cognitive impairment, that is, reduced ability to accurately maintain information in the presence of task-irrelevant stimuli. Yet, there are real-world situations wherein attentional distraction is adaptive. Consider a dyadic social encounter wherein the communicatee’s changing facial expressions appropriately disrupt the communicator’s thoughts. Here, attentional distraction adaptively permits the communicator to modulate ongoing cognition and attend to changing facial expressions in the communicatee. In other words, effective and reciprocal social encounters are those that demonstrate flexibility whereby communicators are sensitive to the facial expressions of the communicatee and are capable of modulating ongoing thoughts to attend to the communicatee. The present study aimed to capture the adaptability of this everyday challenge and gather proof of concept evidence by examining implicit socioemotional modulation of working memory (WM) in relation to symptom severity and functional status in individuals with psychosis. We reasoned that individuals with relatively severe psychosis have a WM system that is less sensitive to the moment-to-moment modulation of socioemotional stimuli. Though individuals with psychosis have general cognitive impairments, the WM construct was
Improving Balance through Virtual Reality and Physical Therapy Integration  [PDF]
Ben Joseph S. Esguerra, Kristen Johnson
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.85030
Abstract: Background and Purpose: Virtual reality (VR) is an innovative technology that shows promise in the assistance of physical therapy (PT). This case report explores the use of virtual reality with a patient suffering from unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH). Case Description: The patient is a 50-year-old male who was referred to physical therapy following a motor vehicle accident. The patient was diagnosed with having an acute left UVH, accompanied by reports of dizziness, imbalance and gait disturbances which impaired him from his work in construction. Intervention: The patient was seen two to three times a week for 40-minute sessions along with an individualized home exercise program. Interventions included vestibular rehabilitation exercises, balance training, gait training, and VR. The goals of VR were to provide task-specific simulations to improve postural balance, decrease anxiety through exposure therapy, and improve smooth eye pursuits to improve static balance. Outcomes: Outcomes used included subjective questionnaires such as the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence survey and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) as well as functional tests like the Sensory Organization Test, Motor Control Test, and the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA). Outcome measures were performed at initial evaluation, at the 10th visit, and again at discharge. Notable improvements were seen on DHI and FGA scores. Conclusion: Dizziness, confidence, balance, and gait improved following vestibular rehabilitation combined with VR. Outcomes of this case suggest that virtual reality in conjunction with vestibular rehabilitation therapy is effective in improving deficits of unilateral vestibular hypofunction. Additionally, the use of VR in this case report suggests this can be an effective tool for intervention to facilitate patient-specific goals.
Surgical Treatment for Refractory Epilepsy: Review of Patient Evaluation and Surgical Options
Kristen M. Kelly,Steve S. Chung
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/303624
Abstract: Treatment of epilepsy often imposes an exposure to various antiepileptic drugs and requires long-term commitment and compliance from the patient. Although many new medications are now available for the treatment of epilepsy, approximately 30% of epilepsy patients still experience recurrent seizures and many experience undesirable side effects. Treatment of epilepsy requires a multidisciplinary approach. For those patients with medically refractory seizures, surgical treatment has increased in prevalence as techniques and devices improve. With increased utilization, proper patient selection has become crucial in evaluating appropriateness of surgical intervention. Epilepsy syndromes in which surgery has shown to be effective include mesial temporal sclerosis, cortical dysplasia, many pediatric epilepsy syndromes, and vascular malformations. Monitoring in an epilepsy monitoring unit with continuous scalp or intracranial EEG is an important step in localization of seizure focus. MRI is the standard imaging technique for evaluation of anatomy. However, other imaging studies including SPECT and PET have become more widespread, often offering increased diagnostic value in select situations. In addition, as an alternative or adjunct to surgical resection, implantable devices such as vagus nerve stimulators, deep brain stimulators, and direct brain stimulators could be useful in seizure treatment. 1. Introduction Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting up to two percent of the population worldwide, and almost two million people in the United States alone [1]. Treatment of epilepsy often imposes an exposure to various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and requires long-term commitment and compliance from the patient. Despite the advent of new AEDs over the past 15 years, approximately 30% of epilepsy patients experience recurrent seizures [2, 3] and many experience undesirable side effects. Therefore, there are still unmet needs for the treatment of epilepsy by AEDs alone, and epilepsy surgery can provide significant reduction or complete control of seizures for those patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Prior to providing epilepsy surgery for patients, clinicians should be able to answer the following two questions. (1) Is seizure focus identified with an acceptable confidence? (2) Is it safe to remove the known seizure focus in terms of neurological outcome? Therefore, it is important to comprehensively evaluate the patient whether they meet specific selection criteria which are discussed in more detail in the following chapters.
Development and initial validation of the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System score
Christopher S Parshuram, James Hutchison, Kristen Middaugh
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7998
Abstract: A case-control design was used to evaluate 11 candidate items and identify a pragmatic score for routine bedside use. Case-patients were urgently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Control-patients had no 'code blue', ICU admission or care restrictions. Validation was performed using two prospectively collected datasets.Data from 60 case and 120 control-patients was obtained. Four out of eleven candidate-items were removed. The seven-item Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score ranges from 0–26. The mean maximum scores were 10.1 in case-patients and 3.4 in control-patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.91, compared with 0.84 for the retrospective nurse-rating of patient risk for near or actual cardiopulmonary arrest. At a score of 8 the sensitivity and specificity were 82% and 93%, respectively. The score increased over 24 hours preceding urgent paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission (P < 0.0001). In 436 urgent consultations, the Bedside PEWS score was higher in patients admitted to the ICU than patients who were not admitted (P < 0.0001).We developed and performed the initial validation of the Bedside PEWS score. This 7-item score can quantify severity of illness in hospitalized children and identify critically ill children with at least one hours notice. Prospective validation in other populations is required before clinical application.Clinical deterioration resulting in near or actual cardiopulmonary arrest in hospitalised children is common [1], associated with adverse outcome [2,3] and may be preventable [4-7]. Timely identification and referral of children may be facilitated by the application of calling criteria or severity of illness scores. The major limitation of available severity of illness scores for hospitalised patients is complexity [4,8,9]. Complex scores are not feasible to implement at the bedside, limiting their ability to function as real-time instruments to improve patient safe
The White Habitus and Hegemonic Masculinity at the Elite Southern University: Asian Americans and the Need for Intersectional Analysis
Rosalind S. Chou,Kristen Lee,Simon Ho
Sociation Today , 2012,
Abstract: Our article demonstrates the power of white habitus, prevalence of colorblind racism, and effect of hegemonic masculine ideology on Asian American students at an elite Southern university. This study takes an intersectional approach towards white habitus, acknowledging the gendered sexualized nature of colorblind racial ideology. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 Asian American undergraduates, we emphasize that Asian Americans are not immune to the racist and racialized experiences of even the most elite American universities and its social spaces. Findings suggest that white habitus and exclusionary white university Greek spaces support a racialized, sexualized, and gendered socialization that intimatley affects our respondents. Our Asian American undergraduates describe instances of sexualized racism and racialized romantic experiences that are particular by gender. We also discuss how our participants have adopted and internalized ideology produced from white habitus and colorblind racism at the university. White habitus socializes and shapes Asian American students at an elite Southern university through intersecting domains of power and through exclusion in largely white spaces.
Intraspecific Variation in Physiological Condition of Reef-Building Corals Associated with Differential Levels of Chronic Disturbance
Chiara Pisapia, Kristen Anderson, Morgan S. Pratchett
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091529
Abstract: Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching), corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density) through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis), subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B = ?121255, p = 0.03) and total lipid content increased (r2 = 14, df = 5,42, p = 0.01, B = 0.9, p = 0.01) with increasing distance from exposed crests. Moreover, zooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B = ?7386077, p = 0.01). Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching.
Hot-electron cooling by acoustic and optical phonons in monolayers of MoS$_2$ and other transition-metal dichalcogenides
Kristen Kaasbjerg,K. S. Bhargavi,S. S. Kubakaddi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.165436
Abstract: We study hot-electron cooling by acoustic and optical phonons in monolayer MoS$_2$. The cooling power $P$ ($P_e = P/n$) is investigated as a function of electron temperature $T_e$ (0-500 $\mathrm{K}$) and carrier density $n$ ($10^{10}$-$10^{13}$ $\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$) taking into account all relevant electron-phonon (el-ph) couplings. We find that the cross over from acoustic phonon dominated cooling at low $T_e$ to optical phonon dominated cooling at higher $T_e$ takes place at $T_e \sim 50$-$75$ $\mathrm{K}$. The unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling to the TA phonon is shown to dominate $P$ due to acoustic phonon scattering over the entire temperature and density range considered. The cooling power due to screened DP coupling to the LA phonon and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling to the TA and LA phonons is orders of magnitude lower. In the Bloch-Gr\"uneisen (BG) regime, $P\sim T_e^4$ ($T_e^6$) and $P\sim n^{-1/2}$ ($P_e\sim n^{-3/2}$) are predicted for unscreened (screened) el-ph interaction. The cooling power due to optical phonons is dominated by zero-order DP couplings and the Fr\"ohlich interaction, and is found to be significantly reduced by the hot-phonon effect when the phonon relaxation time due to phonon-phonon scattering is large compared to the relaxation time due to el-ph scattering. The $T_e$ and $n$ dependence of the hot-phonon distribution function is also studied. Our results for monolayer MoS$_2$ are compared with those in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) as well as monolayer and bilayer graphene.
Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students?  [PDF]
Kristen Hunt, Sharyn Burns
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.76009
Abstract: Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. Online data were collected from a random sample of university undergraduate students (n = 2506) aged 18 - 24 years old. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). Of these students 38% reported to drink at hazardous levels (AUDIT ≥ 8). When all factors were considered: gender, living arrangements, being a domestic student, hours spent at work, participation in university and community sport, higher levels of psychological distress, higher levels of social connectedness, and lower levels of social identity were significant predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption. The finding highlights the need for the inclusion of integrated, multi-strategy health promotion interventions on campus. Further exploration of the associations between social connectedness and social identity as influences of health behaviors will better inform the development of targeted strategies for specific groups.
A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications
Huddleston, Lillie,Varjas, Kris,Meyers, Joel,Cadenhead, Catherine
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presented a case study that contributed to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for research, practice and related policies regarding bullying.Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004) with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index [CPTS-RI] and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, 2nd Edition). Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders.Conclusion: This case study provided important contributions by describing an intervention that is targeted to specific needs of the bully by designing culture specific interventions and working with the student’s unique environmental contexts. Additional contributions included the use of mixed methods to document acceptability, integrity and efficacy of an intervention with documented positive effects in these areas. In addition, implications for policy and practice related to the treatment of students identified as bullies and future research needs are discussed. [West J Emerg Med 2011; 12(3)316-323].
Spatial and Temporal Variation of Stable Isotopes in Precipitation across Costa Rica: An Analysis of Historic GNIP Records  [PDF]
Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo, Germain Esquivel-Hernández, Kristen Welsh, Erin S. Brooks, Jan Boll, Rosa Alfaro-Solís, Juan Valdés-González
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.34027
Abstract: The location of Costa Rica on the Central American Isthmus creates unique microclimate systems that receive moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. In Costa Rica, stable isotope monitoring was conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Meteorological Association as part of the worldwide effort entitled Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation. Sampling campaigns were mainly comprised of monthly-integrated samples during intermittent years from 1990 to 2005. The main goal of this study was to determine spatial and temporal isotopic variations of meteoric waters in Costa Rica using historic records. Samples were grouped in four main regions: Nicoya Peninsula (d2H = 6.65d18O0.13; r2 = 0.86); Pacific Coast (d2H = 7.60d18O + 7.95; r2 = 0.99); Caribbean Slope (d2H = 6.97d18O + 4.97; r2 = 0.97); and Central Valley (d2H = 7.94d18O + 10.38; r2 = 0.98). The water meteoric line for Costa Rica can be defined as d2H = 7.61d18O + 7.40 (r2
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