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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 332 matches for " Krista Casazza "
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Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls
Anna L. Newton,Lynae J. Hanks,Ambika P. Ashraf,Elizabeth Williams,Michelle Davis,Krista Casazza
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/581432
Abstract: The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 (<0.05) versus SPEC: 16.1±1.0 to 16.8±1.0 (=0.05)]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks (<0.05), which was positively related to triglycerides (<0.001) and inversely associated with total cholesterol (<0.001) and LDL (<0.001). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD (=0.05), which was positively related to fasting insulin (<0.001) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose (<0.05). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration.
Ancestry-informative markers on chromosomes 2, 8 and 15 are associated with insulin-related traits in a racially diverse sample of children
Yann C Klimentidis, Jasmin Divers, Krista Casazza, T Beasley, David B Allison, Jose R Fernandez
Human Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-5-2-79
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes prevalence in the paediatric population is increasing, while age at onset is decreasing [1,2]. Type 2 diabetes also disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minorities in the USA [3]. Twin and familial studies have shown a substantial genetic component to the disease, as well as its related phenotypes [4-10]. Although much is known about environmental contributions to type 2 diabetes, only a very small proportion of the variation due to genetic factors is currently explainable by identified genetic polymorphisms [11-13]. Similarly, little is known about the specific genetic factors that may contribute to population differences in diabetes prevalence. Because the origins of type 2 diabetes are likely to be rooted in childhood, a better understanding of genetic determinants among paediatric populations could lead to a better insight into the aetiology of type 2 diabetes and eventually improved prediction and prevention of the disease.Endo-phenotypes can be useful in closely dissecting the genetic basis of eventual disease status [14]. For type 2 diabetes, several such measurable phenotypes exist, typically examining measures of glucose and insulin homeostasis. These measures serve as indicators of reduced insulin response and action that may presage type 2 diabetes [15,16]. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested a genetic basis for racial/ethnic differences in insulin dynamics [17,18]. Examining the genetic basis for these detailed phenotypes therefore allows for a much better understanding of the link between the genetic and metabolic pathways that underlie the development of type 2 diabetes.Since the loci recently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)[19-21] occurred predominantly among individuals of European descent, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether these associations translate to other populations. Hispanic Americans (HAs) and African Americans (AAs) suffer from higher rates of type 2 diabetes than European Amer
Characterization of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children: Is it Useful?
Krista Casazza, Pedro del Corral, Olivia Thomas, Akilah Dulin-Keita, Barbara A. GowerJose R. Fernandez
The Open Obesity Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2174/1876823700901010001]
Abstract: The pathophysiological relevance of the metabolic syndrome is not currently understood, particularly when attempting to apply the diagnosis to children with varying degrees of adiposity or from ethnically diverse populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the metabolic syndrome characterization when the associations are explored by sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Participants were 247 multi-ethnic (African American (AA); n=90; European American (EA); n=102; Hispanic American (HA); n=55) children aged 7-12y. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure and fasting blood samples were obtained. Approximately 9% of the children met the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. There were no differences in prevalence by sex, nor were there differences between girls and boys for mean values of each component. However, there were ethnic differences in characterization of having the metabolic syndrome, with HA more likely to meet the criteria. HA had greater waist circumference, higher triglyceride and glucose concentration and lower HDL-C concentration; whereas AA had higher blood pressure. Weight status was also positively associated with mean values for each component. Due to inherent variations in body composition, physiology and genetics, the usefulness of a characterization of the metabolic syndrome may be limited in the pediatric population.
Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls
Anna L. Newton,Lynae J. Hanks,Ambika P. Ashraf,Elizabeth Williams,Michelle Davis,Krista Casazza
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/581432
Abstract: The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 ( ) versus SPEC: to ( )]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks ( ), which was positively related to triglycerides ( ) and inversely associated with total cholesterol ( ) and LDL ( ). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD ( ), which was positively related to fasting insulin ( ) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose ( ). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration. 1. Introduction The steady rise in prevalence of pediatric obesity over the past three decades has been accompanied by accumulation of risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in childhood and adolescence. The occurrence of hypovitaminosis D (expressed as levels <20?ng/mL of circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD)) has been increasingly documented in the same population [1, 2]. Moreover, children/adolescents with hypovitaminosis D have been reported to experience greater instances of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) [1, 3, 4]. Further, it has been proposed that elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), consequential to chronic low vitamin D level, is mechanistically involved in the adverse perturbations of risk factors underlying MetSyn [5]. Given the emerging identification of vitamin D as an integral player in numerous metabolic pathways, it stands to reason that vitamin D status in the pediatric populace may play a role in the prevalence of metabolic disease risk factors [6, 7]. The relationship between 25OHD status and metabolic health is not equally distributed across groups. In particular, the relationship is more apparent among African American (AA) females, particularly those who are overweight/obese
Genetic variation in a member of the laminin gene family affects variation in body composition in Drosophila and humans
Maria De Luca, Michelle Chambers, Krista Casazza, Kerry H Lok, Gary R Hunter, Barbara A Gower, José R Fernández
BMC Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-9-52
Abstract: We identified four candidate genes that contributed to differences in TAG storage between two strains of D. melanogaster, including Laminin A (LanA), which is a member of the α subfamily of laminin chains. We confirmed the effects of this gene using a viable LanA mutant and showed that female flies homozygous for the mutation had significantly lower TAG storage, body weight, and total protein content than control flies. Drosophila LanA is closely related to human LAMA5 gene, which maps to the well-replicated obesity-linkage region on chromosome 20q13.2-q13.3. We tested for association between three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human LAMA5 gene and variation in body composition and lipid profile traits in a cohort of unrelated women of European American (EA) and African American (AA) descent. In both ethnic groups, we found that SNP rs659822 was associated with weight (EA: P = 0.008; AA: P = 0.05) and lean mass (EA: P= 0.003; AA: P = 0.03). We also found this SNP to be associated with height (P = 0.01), total fat mass (P = 0.01), and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.003) but only in EA women. Finally, significant associations of SNP rs944895 with serum TAG levels (P = 0.02) and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.03) were observed in AA women.Our results suggest an evolutionarily conserved role of a member of the laminin gene family in contributing to variation in weight and body composition.As the prevalence of obesity and its related co-morbidities continue to increase worldwide [1], there is considerable effort being devoted to identify genetic pathways and mechanisms that control fat storage. To gain insights into the genetic basis of natural variation in fat storage, we have used D. melanogaster as a model system. Like mammals, insects store fat as TAG in neutral lipid droplets that are accumulated in the fat body, the functional equivalent of both mammalian liver and white adipose tissue. Drosophila shares many of the components of TAG biosynthesis, degradatio
A Conserved Role for Syndecan Family Members in the Regulation of Whole-Body Energy Metabolism
Maria De Luca,Yann C. Klimentidis,Krista Casazza,Michelle Moses Chambers,Ruth Cho,Susan T. Harbison,Patricia Jumbo-Lucioni,Shaoyan Zhang,Jeff Leips,Jose R. Fernandez
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011286
Abstract: Syndecans are a family of type-I transmembrane proteins that are involved in cell-matrix adhesion, migration, neuronal development, and inflammation. Previous quantitative genetic studies pinpointed Drosophila Syndecan (dSdc) as a positional candidate gene affecting variation in fat storage between two Drosophila melanogaster strains. Here, we first used quantitative complementation tests with dSdc mutants to confirm that natural variation in this gene affects variability in Drosophila fat storage. Next, we examined the effects of a viable dSdc mutant on Drosophila whole-body energy metabolism and associated traits. We observed that young flies homozygous for the dSdc mutation had reduced fat storage and slept longer than homozygous wild-type flies. They also displayed significantly reduced metabolic rate, lower expression of spargel (the Drosophila homologue of PGC-1), and reduced mitochondrial respiration. Compared to control flies, dSdc mutants had lower expression of brain insulin-like peptides, were less fecund, more sensitive to starvation, and had reduced life span. Finally, we tested for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human SDC4 gene and variation in body composition, metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and sleep traits in a cohort of healthy early pubertal children. We found that SNP rs4599 was significantly associated with resting energy expenditure (P = 0.001 after Bonferroni correction) and nominally associated with fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and sleep duration (P = 0.044). On average, children homozygous for the minor allele had lower levels of glucose, higher resting energy expenditure, and slept shorter than children homozygous for the common allele. We also observed that SNP rs1981429 was nominally associated with lean tissue mass (P = 0.035) and intra-abdominal fat (P = 0.049), and SNP rs2267871 with insulin sensitivity (P = 0.037). Collectively, our results in Drosophila and humans argue that syndecan family members play a key role in the regulation of body metabolism.
Triglyceride Concentration is Independently Associated with Variation in the LPL Gene in African American and European American Women
Krista Casazza, Nihal Natour, Jasmin Divers, Laura Kelly Vaughan, Abigail W. Bigham, Barbara A. Gower, Gary R. HunterJosé R. FernándezObjectiveSubjectsMeasurementsResultsConclusion
The Open Obesity Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2174/1876823700901010023]
Abstract: Objective: The regulation of triglyceride (TG) metabolism may be affected by many factors including: race/ethnicity, body composition, body fat distribution, insulin action, and the activity of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enzyme. This study was designed to identify the independent effects of body composition, body fat distribution, insulin action, and LPL genetic variation on TG and HDL-C concentration. Subjects: The study consisted of premenopausal European American (EA) (n=114) and African American (AA) (n=140) women. Measurements: Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) by computed tomography (CT), insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) by intravenous glucose tolerance test, median household income by zip-code. An estimate of individual genetic admixture was obtained from the genotyping of 85 ancestry informative markers and used to control for population stratification. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify contributions of body composition, IAAT, SI, AIRg, African genetic admixture, and LPL polymorphisms to TG and HDL-C. Results: AA had lower TG and higher HDL-C than EA. African genetic admixture, IAAT, AIRg, SI, and RS285 were significantly and independently related to TG concentration. SI was the only independent contributor to HDL-C. RS1800590 was not associated with variation in TG or HDL. Conclusion: Triglyceride concentration appears to be multifactorial in origin and emanates in part from variance in LPL RS285. Future investigations are necessary to understand the mechanisms through which gene polymorphisms, body fat distribution, and insulin action influence the lipid profile.
Influence of deficit irrigation on nutrient indices in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.)  [PDF]
Krista Shellie, Brad Brown
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32031
Abstract: Deficit irrigation is widely used in wine grape production (Vitis vinifera L.) to meet wine quality goals yet its influence on tissue nutrient indices has not been well studied. The objective of this research was to determine whether response to water deficit compromised the prescriptive usefulness of tissue nutrient analyses. Tissue macro and micronutrient composition at bloom and veraison were evaluated over multiple seasons in nine wine grape cultivars grown under well-watered or deficit-irrigated conditions. Deficit-irrigated vines sampled at veraison had 2 to 12-fold higher petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentration, 6% lower blade nitrogen concentration and 13% lower blade copper concentration compared to well-watered vines. Water deficit influenced blade potassium concentration at veraison differently according to cultivar and was lower (cv. Malbec, Petite syrah, Viognier, Lemberger and Sangiovese), higher (cv. Merlot, Cabernet franc and Cabernet Sauvignon) or similar (cv. Grenache) to well-watered vines. Results from this study indicate that nutrient analysis of petiole or blade tissue sampled at veraison has limited diagnostic and prescriptive usefulness when vines are grown under a water deficit.
Health Promotion in Ecuador: A Solution for a Failing System  [PDF]
Dana Rasch, Krista Bywater
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.610115
Abstract: In 2008, the newly written Ecuadorian Constitution guaranteed access to healthcare for all citizens. Consequently, a vast amount of resources have been directed toward rebuilding the public healthcare system, which was in shambles due to the effects of neoliberalism. Although national healthcare studies show positive outcomes, community-based research studies from an impoverished rural barrio in southern Ecuador indicate that the public healthcare system has been unable to address a health epidemic. Based on several years of fieldwork, we argue that the failure originates from the continued functioning of the biomedical model of healthcare as the dominant health discourse in Ecuador. The ensuing result has been the construction of health system governed by an “administrative state” that enforces health policies from the top-down and delivers “episodic” emergency-style care. Accordingly, we maintain that the Ministry of Health (MOH) should create a nationwide community-based health promoter program guided by the principles of health promotion.
Seltsi muuseumist riigi keskmuuseumiks: ikka ajutiste lahendustega / Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the present.
Krista Aru
?petatud Eesti Seltsi Aastaraamat/Yearbook of the Learned Estonian Society , 2011,
Abstract: Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the presentThe Estonian National Museum was founded in Tartu in 1909 as part of the national movement. With its activities and connections in society, the ENM helped create Estonian society, the nation’s collective memory and identity.The ENM has always been – despite the changing locations, names, and content – one of the symbols of national identity. But at the same time, ENM has never had its own building designed specially for the museum’s purposes.Since 1909 there have been several attempts to establish a home for the ENM. At first (1909–1923), Estonian society wanted to establish the museum in the center of Tartu. The museum was intended to become a key institution of the growing nation and establishing the nation’s identity.At last in 1923 the ENM secured the Raadi manor, outside the center of the city, in a beautiful park, near the lake with its boats and water attractions. In this manor the first permanent exhibition of mainly 19th century Estonian peasant life was compiled, and the ENM operated in the Raadi manor from 1923–1940 as the “Estonian’s own museum” The years of alternating occupations, World War II, and political terror damaged and destroyed the whole society. The Raadi manor was destroyed in the war too, and the ENM itself was divided into two parts – the State Ethnographic Museum and the State Literary Museum. The collections of the ENM were given to Tallinn and to many different places inside and outside Tartu. Then began “the period of temporary location” that continues today. The museum is located in several places in the city of Tartu.In 1988, the prior name of the State Ethnographic Museum – the Estonian National Museum – was reinstated. Since the 1990s there have been many attempts to secure a special building for the ENM. Now, at last, as a result of serious economic pressure, we are closer to this goal than ever. During the last five years we, the employees of the ENM, have been asking serious questions: Are we ready to develop the national museum in the context of a modern information society? How do we balance between the globalization of cultural developments and the growing need for local communities to secure their roots and heritage? Are we ready to play an important role in the quality of individual lives and in the quality of community? Can we help to construct a sort of collective social memory and fulfill community relations strategies?We know that the ENM’s future should be to operate with an open spirit and balance between the local and the global, the persona
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